Delta24(25)-sterol methenyltransferase: intracellular localization and azasterol sensitivity in Leishmania major promastigotes overexpressing the enzyme.
ABSTRACT Trypanosomatids contain predominantly ergostane-based sterols, which differ from cholesterol, the main sterol in mammalian cells, in the presence of a methyl group in the 24 position. The methylation is initiated by S-adenosyl-L-methionine:Delta(24 (25))-sterol methenyltransferase, an enzyme present in protozoa, but absent in mammals. The importance of this enzyme is underscored by its potential as a drug target in the treatment of the leishmaniases. Here, we report studies concerning the intracellular distribution of sterol methenyltransferase in Leishmania major promastigotes and overexpressing cells using a specific antibody raised against highly purified recombinant protein. It was found by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy studies that in L. major wild-type cells sterol methenyltransferase was primarily associated to the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition to this location, the protein was incorporated into translucent vesicles presumably of the endocytic pathway. We also found in this study that cells overproducing the enzyme do not have increased resistance to the sterol methenyltransferase inhibitor 22, 26 azasterol.
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ABSTRACT: Two novel intracellular proteases having identical molecular mass (58 kDa) were purified from virulent Indian strain of Leishmania donovani by a combination of aprotinin-agarose affinity chromatography, ion exchange chromatography and finally continuous elution electrophoresis. Both of these proteases migrate in SDS-PAGE as a single homogeneous bands suggesting monomeric nature of these proteases. The enzyme activity of one of the proteases was inhibited by serine protease inhibitor aprotinin and another one was inhibited by metalloprotease inhibitor 1, 10 phenanthroline. The purified enzymes were thus of serine protease (SP-Ld) and metalloprotease (MP-Ld) type. The optimal pH for protease activity is 8.0 and 7.5 for SP-Ld and MP-Ld respectively. The temperature optimum for SP-Ld is 28 °C and for MP-Ld is 37 °C showing their thermostability upto 60 °C. Broad substrate (both natural and synthetic) specificity and the effect of Ca2+ upon these enzymes suggested novelty of these proteases. Kinetic data indicate that SP-Ld is of trypsin like as BAPNA appears to be the best substrate and MP-Ld seems to be collagenase type as it degrades azocoll with maximum efficiency. Both immunofluorescence and immune-gold electron microscopy studies revealed that the SP-Ld is localized in the flagellar pocket as well as at the surface of the parasite, whereas MP-Ld is located extensively near the flagellar pocket region. This work also suggests that the uses of anti SP-Ld and anti MP-Ld antibodies are quite significant in interfering with the process of parasite invasion and multiplication respectively. Thus the major role of SP-Ld could be predicted in invasion process as it down regulates the phagocytic activity of macrophages, and MP-Ld appears to play important roles in parasitic development.Biochimie 10/2010; 92(10):1274-86. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Leishmaniasis ranks the third in disease burden in disability-adjusted life years caused by neglected tropical diseases and is the second cause of parasite-related deaths after malaria; but for a variety of reasons, it is not receiving the attention that would be justified seeing its importance. Leishmaniasis is a diverse group of clinical syndromes caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. It is estimated that 350 million people are at risk in 88 countries, with a global incidence of 1-1.5 million cases of cutaneous and 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. Improvements in diagnostic methods for early case detection and latest combitorial chemotherapeutic methods have given a new hope for combating this deadly disease. The cell biology of Leishmania and mammalian cells differs considerably and this distinctness extends to the biochemical level. This provides the promise that many of the parasite's proteins should be sufficiently different from hosts and can be successfully exploited as drug targets. This paper gives a brief overview of recent developments in the diagnosis and approaches in antileishmanial drug discovery and development.Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases 01/2012; 2012:626838.
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ABSTRACT: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGR), an NADPH dependant enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of mevalonic acid from HMG-CoA required for isoprenoid biosynthesis. The HMGR gene from Leishmania donovani was cloned and expressed. Genome analysis of L. donovani revealed that HMGR gene having an open reading frame of 1,305 bp encodes a putative protein of 434 amino acids. LdHMGR showed optimal activity at pH 7.2 and temperature 37 °C. Kinetic analysis of this enzyme revealed Km values of 35.7 ± 2.5 μM for (R,S)-HMG-CoA and 70 ± 7.9 μM for the cofactor NADPH. On tryptophan fluorescence quenching, the Stern Volmer constant (Ksv), binding constant (Ka) and protein:cofactor stoichiometry for interaction of NADPH cofactor with the enzyme were found to be 6.0 ± 0.7 M(-1), 0.17 μM and 0.72 respectively. Polyclonal anti-rat HMGR antibody detected a band of ∼45 kDa in all phases of promastigote growth. Biophysical analysis of the secondary structure of LdHMGR confirmed the presence of 25.7 ± 0.35 % alpha helicity. Thermal denaturation studies showed extreme stability of the enzyme with 60 % helical structure retained at 90 °C. Statins (simvastatin and atorvastatin) and non-statin (resveratrol) effectively inhibited the growth of L. donovani promastigotes as well as the catalytic activity of the recombinant LdHMGR. Atorvastatin was found to be most potent antileishmanial inhibitor with an IC50 value of 19.4 ± 3.07 μM and a very lower concentration of 315.5 ± 2.1 nM was enough to cause 50 % recombinant LdHMGR enzyme inhibition suggesting direct interaction with the rate limiting enzyme of the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway. Exogenous supplementation of ergosterol in case of atorvastatin and resveratrol treated cells caused complete reversal of growth inhibition whereas simvastatin was found to be ergosterol refractory. Cholesterol supplementation however, failed to overcome growth inhibition in all the cases. Overall our study emphasizes on exploring LdHMGR as a potential drug target for the development of novel antileishmanial agents.Microbial Pathogenesis 11/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor