Complementation of a phycocyanin-bilin lyase from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 with a nucleomorph-encoded open reading frame from the cryptophyte Guillardia theta

Philipps-Universität Marburg, Laboratorium für Zellbiologie, Karl-von-Frisch Str,, D-35032 Marburg, Germany.
BMC Plant Biology (Impact Factor: 3.81). 02/2008; 8:56. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-8-56
Source: PubMed


Cryptophytes are highly compartmentalized organisms, expressing a secondary minimized eukaryotic genome in the nucleomorph and its surrounding remnant cytoplasm, in addition to the cell nucleus, the mitochondrion and the plastid. Because the members of the nucleomorph-encoded proteome may contribute to essential cellular pathways, elucidating nucleomorph-encoded functions is of utmost interest. Unfortunately, cryptophytes are inaccessible for genetic transformations thus far. Therefore the functions of nucleomorph-encoded proteins must be elucidated indirectly by application of methods in genetically accessible organisms.
Orf222, one of the uncharacterized nucleomorph-specific open reading frames of the cryptophyte Guillardia theta, shows homology to slr1649 of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Recently a further homolog from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was characterized to encode a phycocyanin-beta155-bilin lyase. Here we show by insertion mutagenesis that the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 slr1649-encoded protein also acts as a bilin lyase, and additionally contributes to linker attachment and/or stability of phycobilisomes. Finally, our results indicate that the phycocyanin-beta155-bilin lyase of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 can be complemented in vivo by the nucleomorph-encoded open reading frame orf222.
Our data show that the loss of phycocyanin-lyase function causes pleiotropic effects in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and indicate that after separating from a common ancestor protein, the phycoerythrin lyase from Guillardia theta has retained its capacity to couple a bilin group to other phycobiliproteins. This is a further, unexpected example of the universality of phycobiliprotein lyases.

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    • "Lithium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE (LiDS-PAGE) analysis revealed that the phycobilisome in ΔcpcF had relatively lower amounts of CpcA, CpcB and the linker polypeptide CpcC1, an apparent absence of CpcC2, and more abundant CpcG1 (Fig. 5C). Interestingly, CpcC2 was also absent from phycobilisomes isolated from a Synechocystis phycocyanin β-subunit lyase (cpcT) mutant [23]. The absence of CpcC2 would suggest that no core-distal phycocyanin hexamers were present in the assembled phycobilisomes from the ΔcpcF strain. "
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    ABSTRACT: Phycocyanin is an important component of the phycobilisome, which is the principal light-harvesting complex in cyanobacteria. The covalent attachment of the phycocyanobilin chromophore to phycocyanin is catalyzed by the enzyme phycocyanin lyase. The photosynthetic properties and phycobilisome assembly state were characterized in wild type and two mutants which lack holo-α-phycocyanin. Insertional inactivation of the phycocyanin α-subunit lyase (ΔcpcF mutant) prevents the ligation of phycocyanobilin to α-phycocyanin (CpcA), while disruption of the cpcB/A/C2/C1 operon in the CK mutant prevents synthesis of both apo-α-phycocyanin (apo-CpcA) and apo-β-phycocyanin (apo-CpcB). Both mutants exhibited similar light saturation curves under white actinic light illumination conditions, indicating the phycobilisomes in the ΔcpcF mutant are not fully functional in excitation energy transfer. Under red actinic light illumination, wild type and both phycocyanin mutant strains exhibited similar light saturation characteristics. This indicates that all three strains contain functional allophycocyanin cores associated with their phycobilisomes. Analysis of the phycobilisome content of these strains indicated that, as expected, wild type exhibited normal phycobilisome assembly and the CK mutant assembled only the allophycocyanin core. However, the ΔcpcF mutant assembled phycobilisomes which, while much larger than the allophycocyanin core observed in the CK mutant, were significantly smaller than phycobilisomes observed in wild type. Interestingly, the phycobilisomes from the ΔcpcF mutant contained holo-CpcB and apo-CpcA. Additionally, we found that the large form of FNR (FNRL) accumulated to normal levels in wild type and the ΔcpcF mutant. In the CK mutant, however, significantly less FNRL accumulated. FNRL has been reported to associate with the phycocyanin rods in phycobilisomes via its N-terminal domain, which shares sequence homology with a phycocyanin linker polypeptide. We suggest that the assembly of apo-CpcA in the phycobilisomes of ΔcpcF can stabilize FNRL and modulate its function. These phycobilisomes, however, inefficiently transfer excitation energy to Photosystem II.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e105952. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105952 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Phycocyanin is a component of phycobilisomes, the light-harvesting apparatus in photosynthesis . cpcT homologs are also found in the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae and the cryptophyte Guillardia theta (Bolte et al. 2008). We found neither CRL nor cpcT homologs in the complete genomes of the green algae Volvox carteri, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii or Osteococcus tauri. "
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