Chronic uveitis in children with and without juvenile idiopathic arthritis: differences in patient characteristics and clinical course.
ABSTRACT Anterior uveitis (AU) in childhood may be the first manifestation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We identified factors that may help to differentiate JIA-associated AU from the more common idiopathic AU (IAU) before the onset of arthritis.
Children with IAU and with JIA-associated AU were analyzed for their demographics, age at onset of uveitis, uveitis course and complications, ocular surgery, antiinflammatory medication, and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA).
AU was associated with JIA in 88 cases, and was idiopathic in another 49. In the JIA group, 60% of patients were female compared to 47% in the IAU group (p = 0.154). Antinuclear antibody (ANA) was significantly more frequent in the JIA group (88% vs 33%; p < 0.001, OR 14.4, 95% CI 5.8-35.6). Insidious uveitis onset occurred more often in JIA than in IAU patients (67% vs 31%; p < 0.001, OR 4.6, 95% CI 2.2-9.8). Persistent uveitis was found in 82% of JIA patients, and in 57% of IAU patients (p = 0.003, OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.5-7.4). Median age of AU onset was 5 years in JIA and 9 years in IAU (p < 0.001). Uveitis complications at first presentation at our institutions were more frequent in JIA than in IAU patients (79% vs 61%; p = 0.027, OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.3). During followup, 69 surgical procedures (51% of patients, 1.31 per patient) were performed in the JIA group, and 18 in IAU patients (0.57 per patient) (p = 0.008). BCVA was better in the IAU patients at first presentation (p = 0.001).
The IAU and JIA-associated AU in childhood differ in their clinical course. ANA positivity, presence of uveitis complications at first manifestation, insidious onset, duration over 3 months, BCVA of 20/50 or less, and an age of 3 years or younger might help to detect AU associated with JIA. JIA uveitis manifests earlier, has more complications, and more often requires systemic immunosuppression and surgical intervention.
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ABSTRACT: Glaucoma is one of the sight-threatening complications of Fuchs' uveitis syndrome (FUS) and the most difficult to manage. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of cyclophotocoagulation (CPC) in the management of glaucoma secondary to FUS. In a retrospective analysis, the charts of all patients with FUS referred to our clinic from January 2002 to December 2012 were reviewed. In patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension, controlled eye pressure was defined using two alternative upper limits of 6 ≤ IOP ≤ 21 mmHg and 6 ≤ IOP ≤ 18 mmHg at 1 year follow-up. One hundred and seventy-six patients with FUS were included in this study. Of those, 28 had ocular hypertension (OHT) or glaucoma. Mean maximal intraocular pressure (IOP) of patients with glaucoma/OHT was 40.8 mmHg. Twenty-three patients (82.1 %) had maximal IOP levels of 35 mmHg or higher. Sixteen patients with glaucoma/OHT underwent CPC alone (ten patients) or in combination with other surgical procedures (six patients). After 1 year, control of IOP for both upper limits (6 ≤ IOP ≤ 18 mmHg) and (6 ≤ IOP ≤ 21 mmHg) was achieved in six of ten patients (60 %) who received CPC alone, and in five of six patients (83.3 %) who required additional surgery after CPC. The mean number of cycloablative procedures was 1.3 (range 1-2) in the CPC alone group and 1.2 (range 1-2) in patients for whom CPC was used as adjunct therapy. There was no exacerbation of intraocular inflammation, no postoperative hypotony and no phthisis bulbi in the 16 patients who underwent CPC. CPC is a safe and effective procedure that should be considered if medical treatment has failed to control glaucoma in FUS.Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie 01/2014; · 1.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis-related uveitis is the most common type of uveitis in childhood and one of the main causes of visual impairment in children. The introduction of biological treatment has widened the range of therapeutic options for children with uveitis refractory to standard nonbiologic immunosuppressants. Data from clinical trials suggest that both adalimumab and infliximab have demonstrated effectiveness and safety in open-label studies, although no large, randomized, controlled trials have been reported so far. The role of etanercept in treating juvenile idiopathic arthritis-related uveitis is not yet well defined. In our experience, anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy has been shown to be more effective than steroids and/or methotrexate in treating uveitis. Up to now, tumor necrosis factor blocking compounds have been reserved for the treatment of the most severe cases of refractory uveitis, and larger prospective clinical trials are required in order to better assess the safety of these new compounds.Drug Design, Development and Therapy 01/2014; 8:341-348. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To identify factors predictive of remission of inflammation in new-onset anterior uveitis cases treated at tertiary uveitis care facilities. Retrospective cohort study. Patients seeking treatment at participating academic uveitis clinics within 90 days of initial diagnosis of anterior uveitis. Retrospective cohort study based on standardized chart review. Factors predictive of remission (no disease activity without corticosteroid or immunosuppressive treatments at all visits during a 90-day period). Nine hundred ninety eyes (687 patients) had a first-ever diagnosis of anterior uveitis within 90 days before initial presentation and had follow-up visits thereafter. The median follow-up time was 160 days. Systemic diagnoses with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-0.74) and Behçet's disease (aHR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.01-0.85) were associated with a lower incidence of uveitis remission. Cases of bilateral uveitis (aHR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.54-0.87) and those with a history of cataract surgery before presentation (aHR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29-0.87) also had a lower incidence of remission. Regarding clinical findings at the initial visit, a high degree of vitreous cells at initial presentation was associated with a lower incidence of remission (for 1+ or more vs. none: aHR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55-0.95). An initial visual acuity of 20/200 or worse, with respect to 20/40 or better, also was predictive of a lower incidence of remission (aHR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32-0.86). Factors associated with a lower incidence of remission among new-onset anterior uveitis cases included diagnosis with JIA, Behçet's disease, bilateral uveitis, history of cataract surgery, findings of 1+ or more vitreous cells at presentation, and an initial visual acuity of 20/200 or worse. Patients with these risk factors seem to be at higher risk of persistent inflammation; reciprocally, patients lacking these factors would be more likely to experience remission. Patients with risk factors for nonremission of uveitis should be managed taking into account the higher probability of a chronic inflammatory course. Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references.Ophthalmology 12/2013; · 5.56 Impact Factor