The structure and chemical bonding in the N(2)-CuX and N(2)...XCu (X = F, Cl, Br) systems studied by means of the molecular orbital and Quantum Chemical Topology methods.
ABSTRACT Ab initio studies carried out at the MP2(full)/6-311+G(2df) and MP2(full)/aug-cc-pVTZ-PP computational levels reveals that dinitrogen (N(2)) and cuprous halides (CuX, X = F, Cl, Br) form three types of systems with the side-on and end-on coordination of N(2): N[triple bond]N-CuX (C(infinity v)), N(2)-CuX (C(2v)) stabilized by the donor-acceptor bonds and weak van der Waals complexes N(2)...XCu (C(2v)) with dominant dispersive forces. An electron density transfer between the N(2) and CuX depends on type of the N(2) coordination and a comparison of the NPA charges yields the [N[triple bond]N](delta+)-[CuX](delta-) and [N(2)](delta-)-[CuX](delta+) formula. According to the NBO analysis, the Cu-N coordinate bonds are governed by predominant LP(N2)-->sigma*(Cu-X) "2e-delocalization" in the most stable N[triple bond]N-CuX systems, meanwhile back donation LP(Cu)-->pi*(N-N) prevails in less stable N(2)-CuX molecules. A topological analysis of the electron density (AIM) presents single BCP between the Cu and N nuclei in the N[triple bond]N-CuX, two BCPs corresponding to two donor-acceptor Cu-N bonds in the N(2)-CuX and single BCP between electron density maximum of the N[triple bond]N bond and halogen nucleus in the van der Waals complexes N(2)...XCu. In all systems values of the Laplacian nabla(2)rho(r)(r(BCP)) are positive and they decrease following a trend of the complex stability i.e. N[triple bond]N-CuX (C(infinity v)) > N(2)-CuX (C(2v)) > N(2)...XCu (C(2v)). A topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) reveals strongly ionic bond in isolated CuF and a contribution of covalent character in the Cu-Cl and Cu-Br bonds. The donor-acceptor bonds Cu-N are characterized by bonding disynaptic basins V(Cu,N) with attractors localized at positions corresponding to slightly distorted lone pairs V(N) in isolated N(2). In the N[triple bond]N-CuX systems, there were no creation of any new bonding attractors in regions where classically the donor-acceptor bonds are expected and there is no sign of typical covalent bond Cu-N with the bonding pair. Calculations carried out for the N[triple bond]N-CuX reveal small polarization of the electron density in the N[triple bond]N bond, which is reflected by the bond polarity index being in range of 0.14 (F) to 0.11 (Cl).
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ABSTRACT: Closed-shell contacts between two copper(I) ions are expected to be repulsive. However, such contacts are quite frequent and are well documented. Crystallographic characterization of such contacts in unsupported and bridged multinuclear copper(I) complexes has repeatedly invited debates on the existence of cuprophilicity. Recent developments in the application of Bader's theory of atoms-in-molecules (AIM) to systems in which weak hydrogen bonds are involved suggests that the copper(I)-copper(I) contacts would benefit from a similar analysis. Thus the nature of electron-density distributions in copper(I) dimers that are unsupported, and those that are bridged, have been examined. A comparison of complexes that are dimers of symmetrical monomers and those that are dimers of two copper(I) monomers with different coordination spheres has also been made. AIM analysis shows that a bond critical point (BCP) between two Cu atoms is present in most cases. The nature of the BCP in terms of the electron density, ρ, and its Laplacian is quite similar to the nature of critical points observed in hydrogen bonds in the same systems. The ρ is inversely correlated to Cu-Cu distance. It is higher in asymmetrical systems than what is observed in corresponding symmetrical systems. By examining the ratio of the local electron potential-energy density (V(c)) to the kinetic energy density (G(c)), |V(c)|/G(c) at the critical point suggests that these interactions are not perfectly ionic but have some shared nature. Thus an analysis of critical points by using AIM theory points to the presence of an attractive metallophilic interaction similar to other well-documented weak interactions like hydrogen bonding.Chemistry 03/2012; 18(10):3032-42. · 5.93 Impact Factor