The structure and chemical bonding in the N(2)-CuX and N(2)...XCu (X = F, Cl, Br) systems studied by means of the molecular orbital and Quantum Chemical Topology methods.
ABSTRACT Ab initio studies carried out at the MP2(full)/6-311+G(2df) and MP2(full)/aug-cc-pVTZ-PP computational levels reveals that dinitrogen (N(2)) and cuprous halides (CuX, X = F, Cl, Br) form three types of systems with the side-on and end-on coordination of N(2): N[triple bond]N-CuX (C(infinity v)), N(2)-CuX (C(2v)) stabilized by the donor-acceptor bonds and weak van der Waals complexes N(2)...XCu (C(2v)) with dominant dispersive forces. An electron density transfer between the N(2) and CuX depends on type of the N(2) coordination and a comparison of the NPA charges yields the [N[triple bond]N](delta+)-[CuX](delta-) and [N(2)](delta-)-[CuX](delta+) formula. According to the NBO analysis, the Cu-N coordinate bonds are governed by predominant LP(N2)-->sigma*(Cu-X) "2e-delocalization" in the most stable N[triple bond]N-CuX systems, meanwhile back donation LP(Cu)-->pi*(N-N) prevails in less stable N(2)-CuX molecules. A topological analysis of the electron density (AIM) presents single BCP between the Cu and N nuclei in the N[triple bond]N-CuX, two BCPs corresponding to two donor-acceptor Cu-N bonds in the N(2)-CuX and single BCP between electron density maximum of the N[triple bond]N bond and halogen nucleus in the van der Waals complexes N(2)...XCu. In all systems values of the Laplacian nabla(2)rho(r)(r(BCP)) are positive and they decrease following a trend of the complex stability i.e. N[triple bond]N-CuX (C(infinity v)) > N(2)-CuX (C(2v)) > N(2)...XCu (C(2v)). A topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) reveals strongly ionic bond in isolated CuF and a contribution of covalent character in the Cu-Cl and Cu-Br bonds. The donor-acceptor bonds Cu-N are characterized by bonding disynaptic basins V(Cu,N) with attractors localized at positions corresponding to slightly distorted lone pairs V(N) in isolated N(2). In the N[triple bond]N-CuX systems, there were no creation of any new bonding attractors in regions where classically the donor-acceptor bonds are expected and there is no sign of typical covalent bond Cu-N with the bonding pair. Calculations carried out for the N[triple bond]N-CuX reveal small polarization of the electron density in the N[triple bond]N bond, which is reflected by the bond polarity index being in range of 0.14 (F) to 0.11 (Cl).
- SourceAvailable from: Jean-Philip Piquemal[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The nature of the bonding in model complexes of di-copper metalloenzymes has been analyzed by means of the electronic localization function (ELF) and by the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). The constrained space orbital variations (CSOV) approach has also been used. Density functional theory (DFT) and CASSCF calculations have been carried out on several models of tyrosinase such as the sole Cu2O22+ central core, the Cu2O2(NH3)62+ complex and the Cu2O2(Imidazol)62+ complex. The influence on the central Cu(2)O(2) moiety of both levels of calculation and ligand environment have been discussed. The distinct bonding modes have been characterized for the two major known structures: [Cu(2)(mu-eta(2): eta(2)-O(2))](2+) and [Cu(2)(mu-O(2))](2+). Particular attention has been given to the analysis of the O-O and Cu-O bonds and the nature of the bonding modes has also been analyzed in terms of mesomeric structures. The ELF topological approach shows a significant conservation of the topology between the DFT and CASSCF approaches. Particularly, three-center Cu-O-Cu bonds are observed when the ligands are attached to the central core. At the DFT level, the importance of self interaction effects are emphasized. Although, the DFT approach does not appear to be suitable for the computation of the electronic structure of the isolated Cu(2)O(2) central core, competitive self interaction mechanisms lead to an imperfect but acceptable model when using imidazol ligands. Our results confirm to a certain extent the observations of [M.F. Rode, H.J. Werner, Theoretical Chemistry Accounts 4-5 (2005) 247.] who found a qualitative agreement between B3LYP and localized MRCI calculations when dealing with the Cu(2)O(2) central core with six ammonia ligands.Journal of Molecular Structure 06/2006; 764(1-3):77-86. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ab initio and DFT calculations have been performed on a series of organometallic compounds, according to the formula MCH(n), where M = K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, or Mn and n = 1-3. Various theoretical methods are compared, the B3LYP level yielding the same agreement with the experimental geometries available as the correlated MP2 and CISD methods, with the 6-311++G(3df,2p) basis set for C and H and Wachter's (15s11p6d3f1g)/[10s7p4d3f1g] basis set for transition metals. The main geometric and electronic features of the molecules studied are described, analyzing the M-C bonding characteristics in terms of the atoms in molecules theory (AIM) and the electron localization function (ELF). Although multiple bonding is expected from the Lewis bonding scheme, the results indicate an almost pure ionic bond for all of the systems studied. The net charge transfer from the metal to the carbon atom ranges from 0.5 to 1 e(-), and the electronic structure of the CH(n)(-) moiety is unaltered after the interaction with the metal cation, showing little or no effect on the shape of the electron pairing. The bond paths corresponding to a possible alpha-agostic bond for these systems are not present.The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 09/2005; 109(33):7500-8. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have studied the geometry of the formally d(0) MX(n)() (X = F, H, CH(3) and O; n = 2-6) molecules of the period 4 metals from Ca to Mn by studying the topology of the electron localization function (ELF) in order to try to understand why many of these molecules have non-VSEPR geometries. The quantitative analysis of the core basin population shows that it is always larger than its conventional value (18) because, in the LCAO-MO scheme, the 3d basis functions centered on the metal noticeably contribute to the electron density within the core region associated with the M shell. Therefore, the density available to form the bonds is less than Z(M) - 18, the value adopted in electron counts. Under the influence of the ligands, these electrons cause the core to lose its spherical symmetry by the formation of opposite-spin pair localization basins, which in turn influence the geometry of the ligands if the interaction of the ligands with the core is sufficiently strong. All of the ligands considered in this study, except F, interact with the core sufficiently strongly to give non-VSEPR geometries, which we have rationalized on the basis of the ELF topology.Inorganic Chemistry 06/2004; 43(10):3248-56. · 4.59 Impact Factor