To assess the patterns of failure after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
We analyzed patients treated at the University of Texas Medical Branch between May 2002 and February 2006 who met the following criteria: (1) definitive IMRT without chemotherapy for oropharyngeal SCC; (2) no pretreatment radical surgery; (3) minimal follow-up of 1 year. The location of each nodal/primary failure was co-registered to the pretreatment planning computed tomography scan and then expanded by 5 mm to a planning target volume (PTV) of the failure (PTV-f). We then investigated whether the prescription dose to the PTV-f had been appropriate for the amount of disease present before treatment and whether the PTV-f had been adequately covered.
A total of 50 patients were eligible. With a median follow-up of 32.6 months (range, 12.1-58.6), three local and six regional failures were observed in 8 patients. All but one failure, that had been neglected, were recorded within 14 months of the treatment end. Of the nine failures, four developed in the neck treated electively to the lowest dose level; in all of them, we could retrospectively identify initial positive lymph nodes that might have justified the subsequent failure. The remaining five failures developed in proximity of the high-dose volume. In all but one, the volume of region of interest receiving >/=95% of the dose of the PTV-f was >95%, suggesting adequate coverage. In 1 patient, about 20% of PTV-f was outside the 95% isodose, so that marginal underdosing could not be ruled out.
A potential cause could be identified in all the failures in the lowest dose level. The implications and possible remedies are discussed. Most failures around the high-dose region were "true failures" with no apparent technical cause.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A descriptive analysis was made in terms of the related radiation induced acute and late mucositis and xerostomia along with survival and tumor control rates (significance level at 0.016, bonferroni correction), for irradiation in head and neck carcinomas with either 2D Radiation Therapy (2DRT) and 3D conformal (3DCRT) or Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). The mean score of grade > II xerostomia for IMRT versus 2-3D RT was 0.31 ± 0.23 and 0.56 ± 0.23, respectively (Mann Whitney, P < 0.001). The parotid-dose for IMRT versus 2-3D RT was 29.56 ± 5.45 and 50.73 ± 6.79, respectively (Mann Whitney, P = 0.016). The reported mean parotid-gland doses were significantly correlated with late xerostomia (spearman test, rho = 0.5013, P < 0.001). A trend was noted for the superiority of IMRT concerning the acute oral mucositis. The 3-year overall survival for either IMRT or 2-3DRT was 89.5% and 82.7%, respectively (P = 0.026, Kruskal-Wallis test). The mean 3-year locoregional control rate was 83.6% (range: 70-97%) and 74.4 (range: 61-82%), respectively (P = 0.025, Kruskal-Wallis). In conclusion, no significant differences in terms of locoregional control, overall survival and acute mucositis could be noted, while late xerostomia is definitely higher in 2-3D RT versus IMRT. Patients with head and neck carcinoma should be referred preferably to IMRT techniques.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ATM has the capability of carrying various types of services, and
broadband networks based on it have already been in commercial operation
in some countries. But it is considered that ATM is not suitable for
switching and transferring low-speed CBR services such as 64 kbit/s
voice and other traditional narrowband services, because the large
packetization delay induced by the ATM voice adaptation will seriously
affect the quality of voice. In this paper, we present an ATM switching
system for PSTN/N-ISDN services in which we adopt the composite cell
adaptation method to reduce the packetization delay in order to satisfy
the delay requirements of STM switching systems. Some key parameters
have been measured in the realized system, and the results prove that
this switching system guarantees perfect voice quality and high
ATM, 1999. ICATM '99. 1999 2nd International Conference on; 02/1999
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the results of a multi-institutional study of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for early oropharyngeal cancer.
Patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma Stage T1-2, N0-1, M0 requiring treatment of the bilateral neck were eligible. Chemotherapy was not permitted. Prescribed planning target volumes (PTVs) doses to primary tumor and involved nodes was 66 Gy at 2.2 Gy/fraction over 6 weeks. Subclinical PTVs received simultaneously 54-60 Gy at 1.8-2.0 Gy/fraction. Participating institutions were preapproved for IMRT, and quality assurance review was performed by the Image-Guided Therapy Center.
69 patients were accrued from 14 institutions. At median follow-up for surviving patients (2.8 years), the 2-year estimated local-regional failure (LRF) rate was 9%. 2/4 patients (50%) with major underdose deviations had LRF compared with 3/49 (6%) without such deviations (p = 0.04). All cases of LRF, metastasis, or second primary cancer occurred among patients who were current/former smokers, and none among patients who never smoked. Maximal late toxicities Grade >or=2 were skin 12%, mucosa 24%, salivary 67%, esophagus 19%, osteoradionecrosis 6%. Longer follow-up revealed reduced late toxicity in all categories. Xerostomia Grade >or=2 was observed in 55% of patients at 6 months but reduced to 25% and 16% at 12 and 24 months, respectively. In contrast, salivary output did not recover over time.
Moderately accelerated hypofractionatd IMRT without chemotherapy for early oropharyngeal cancer is feasible, achieving high tumor control rates and reduced salivary toxicity compared with similar patients in previous Radiation Therapy Oncology Group studies. Major target underdose deviations were associated with higher LRF rate.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 06/2009; 76(5):1333-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.04.011 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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