[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rising rates of unplanned admissions among older people are placing unprecedented demand on health services internationally. Unplanned hospital admissions for ill-defined conditions (coded with an R prefix within Chapter XVIII of the International Classification of Diseases-10) have been targeted for admission avoidance strategies, but little is known about these admissions. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and factors predicting ill-defined (R-coded) hospital admissions of older people and their association with health outcomes.
Retrospective analysis of unplanned hospital admissions to general internal and geriatric medicine wards in one hospital over 12 months (2002) with follow-up for 36 months. The study was carried out in an acute teaching hospital in England. The participants were all people aged 65 and over with unplanned hospital admissions to general internal and geriatric medicine. Independent variables included time of admission, residence at admission, route of admission to hospital, age, gender, comorbidity measured by count of diagnoses. Main outcome measures were primary diagnosis (ill-defined versus other diagnostic code), death during the hospital stay, deaths to 36 months, readmissions within 36 months, discharge destination and length of hospital stay.
Incidence of R-codes at discharge was 21.6%, but was higher in general internal than geriatric medicine (25.6% v 14.1% respectively). Age, gender and co-morbidity were not significant predictors of R-code diagnoses. Admission via the emergency department (ED), out of normal general practitioner (GP) hours, under the care of general medicine and from non-residential care settings increased the risk of receiving R-codes. R-coded patients had a significantly shorter length of stay (5.91 days difference, 95% CI 4.47, 7.35), were less likely to die (hazard ratio 0.71, 95%CI 0.59, 0.85) at any point, but were as likely to be readmitted as other patients (hazard ratio 0.96 (95% CI 0.88, 1.05).
R-coded diagnoses accounted for 1/5 of emergency admission episodes, higher than anticipated from total English hospital admissions, but comparable with rates reported in similar settings in other countries. Unexpectedly, age did not predict R-coded diagnosis at discharge. Lower mortality and length of stay support the view that these are avoidable admissions, but readmission rates particularly for further R-coded admissions indicate on-going health care needs. Patient characteristics did not predict R-coding, but organisational features, particularly admission via the ED, out of normal GP hours and via general internal medicine, were important and may offer opportunity for admission reduction strategies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Very frail elderly patients living in the community, present complex needs and have a higher rate of hospital admissions with emergency department (ED) visits. Here, we evaluated the impact on hospital admissions of the COPA model (CO-ordination Personnes Agées), which provides integrated primary care with intensive case management for community-dwelling, very frail elderly patients. We used a quasi-experimental study in an urban district of Paris with four hundred twenty-eight very frail patients (105 in the intervention group and 323 in the control group) with one-year follow-up. The primary outcome measures were the presence of any unplanned hospitalization (via the ED), any planned hospitalizations (direct admission, no ED visit) and any hospitalization overall. Secondary outcome measures included health parameters assessed with the RAI-HC (Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care). Comparing the intervention group with the control group, the risk of having at least one unplanned hospital admission decreased at one year and the planned hospital admissions rate increased, without a significant change in total hospital admissions. Among patients in the intervention group, there was less risk of depression and dyspnea. The COPA model improves the quality of care provided to very frail elderly patients by reducing unplanned hospitalizations and improving some health parameters.
Archives of gerontology and geriatrics 05/2014; 58(3). DOI:10.1016/j.archger.2014.01.005 · 1.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nephrologists worldwide are gradually coping with elderly patients. This is because of the burden of chronic disease in the aging population and specifically chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD in the elderly rarely occurs in isolation from other chronic conditions and can often be a marker of these conditions themselves. Geriatricians usually take care of chronic conditions and are trained to perform comprehensive geriatric assessment, a tool to estimate frailty, that is the risk of adverse outcome, disability, and death in the clinical setting of elderly inpatients. Unfortunately, they are not used to a CHD invasive and non-invasive approach and so there is no doubt about the need for a co-managed care model for these patients. However, where and how this model must be realized is still questionable. New hospital care models are patient-centered and encompass the concepts of departments to embrace the differentiated levels of care approach. According to this model the hospital is subdivided into three different standards of care: 1-high; 2 -intermediate; 3- low and this organization avoids inpatients being transferred frequently to different units, receiving specific care easily obtained by moving and changing the medical staff in charge of the patient. The lean care approach integrates the principles of the Toyota Producing System (TPS), a leading system of the industrial world, into intensity-based hospital care, thereby maximizing quality processes and promoting co-managed care as in the nephro-geriatric clinical setting.
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