Intron 4 a/b polymorphism of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene is associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in a genetically homogeneous population.
ABSTRACT Current classifications of diabetes distinguish between type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), however recent evidence highlights overlap between T1D and T2D. Earlier studies have suggested altered nitric oxide (NO) metabolism in both T1D and T2D. In the present case-control study, we investigated whether the endothelial NO synthase gene intron 4 a/b polymorphism is associated with T1D and T2D in the island of Crete, a well-defined area with genetically homogeneous population. Mutated allele "a" was more common in individuals with both T1D and T2D than in controls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06-2.77, p = 0.013; and OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 0.930-2.42, p = 0.047, respectively). Mutated genotype (a/a or a/b) was more common in individuals with T1D than in nondiabetic individuals (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.12-3.32, p = 0.008); this increased frequency was also observed for T2D, although not at a significant level (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 0.802-2.37). No difference was found in the frequency of mutated allele a or mutated genotype (a/a or a/b) between T1D and T2D populations. In conclusion, our results indicate that allele a of the intron 4 endothelial NO synthase gene is associated with susceptibility to both T1D and T2D and may represent a common genetic factor for diabetes.
Article: Association of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha gene polymorphism with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in a Caucasian (Hungarian) sample.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) is a transcription factor that plays an important role in neo-vascularisation, embryonic pancreas beta-cell mass development, and beta cell protection. Recently a non synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (g.C45035T SNP, rs11549465) of HIF-1alpha gene, resulting in the p.P582S amino acid change has been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in a Japanese population. Our aim was to replicate these findings on a Caucasian (Hungarian) population, as well as to study whether this genetic effect is restricted to T2DM or can be expanded to diabetes in general. A large Caucasian sample (N = 890) was recruited including 370 T2DM, 166 T1DM and 354 healthy subjects. Genotyping was validated by two independent methods: a restriction fragment analysis (RFLP) and a real time PCR using TaqMan probes. An overestimation of heterozygotes by RFLP was observed as a consequence of a nearby SNP (rs34005929). Therefore genotyping results of the justified TaqMan system were accepted. The measured genotype distribution corresponded to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P = 0.740) As the TT genotype was extremely rare in the population (0.6% in clinical sample and 2.5% in controls), the genotypes were grouped as T absent (CC) and T present (CT and TT). Genotype-wise analysis showed a significant increase of T present group in controls (24.0%) as compared to patients (16.8%, P = 0.008). This genetic effect was demonstrated in the separated samples of type 1 (15.1%, P = 0.020), and also in type 2 (17.6%, P = 0.032) diabetes. Allele-wise analysis gave identical results showing a higher frequency of the T allele in the control sample (13.3%) than in the clinical sample (8.7%, P = 0.002) with similar results in type 1 (7.8%, P = 0.010) and type 2 (9.1%, P = 0.011) diabetes. The odds ratio for diabetes (either type 1 or 2) was 1.56 in the presence of the C allele. We confirmed the protective effect of a rare genetic variant of HIF-1alpha gene against type 2 diabetes in a Caucasian sample. Moreover we demonstrated a genetic contribution of the same polymorphism in type 1 diabetes as well, supporting a possible overlap in pathomechanism for T2DM and a T1DM.BMC Medical Genetics 09/2009; 10:79. · 2.33 Impact Factor