Article

Attitudes toward Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) treatment: Parents' and children's perspectives

Neuro-Pediatric Unit, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem 91240, Israel.
Journal of child neurology (Impact Factor: 1.67). 06/2008; 23(9):1036-42. DOI: 10.1177/0883073808317726
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Attitudes toward pharmacological treatment may be a major factor contributing to adherence to such treatment. In the current study, attitudes toward methylphenidate treatment among 50 children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their parents were assessed. Authors of this study have found that the study population is concerned and suspicious toward methylphenidate treatment. Most participants were exposed to negative information even before treatment initiation, which caused many participants to consult other sources and postpone the treatment initiation. Although experiencing methylphenidate as safe and effective (after 23.5 months of treatment), the leading cause of negative attitudes is the concern regarding long-term effects. The single most effective factor regarding the attitude toward methylphenidate treatment is the neurologist's explanation. It is concluded that the pediatric neurologist has a crucial role in affecting attitudes of children and parents toward methylphenidate treatment.

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Available from: Itai Berger, Aug 14, 2015
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    • "Despite the fact that this multimodal approach has been shown to be effective in reducing ADHD symptoms (MTA Cooperative Group, 1999; Van der Oord et al., 2008), it seems that these effects cannot be sustained beyond 24 months (Jensen et al., 2007). Furthermore in regard to stimulant medication, some children experience serious side effects (Graham and Coghill, 2008) and there is growing concern among parents about the unknown long term effects (Berger et al., 2008). Finally, it has been shown that current multimodal approach does not lead to improvements in academic performance (Raggi and Chronis, 2006; Van der Oord et al., 2008), a key area of functioning in every day life which is often disturbed in children with ADHD (Loe and Feldman, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this randomized controlled trial was to replicate and extend previous studies of Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT) in children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While a large proportion of children with ADHD suffer from academic difficulties, only few previous efficacy studies have taken into account long term academic outcome measures. So far, results regarding academic outcome measures have been inconsistent. Hundred and two children with ADHD between the age of 8 and 12 years (both medicated and medication naïve) participated in current randomized controlled trial. Children were randomly assigned to CWMT or a new active combined working memory-and executive function compensatory training called 'Paying Attention in Class.' Primary outcome measures were neurocognitive functioning and academic performance. Secondary outcome measures contained ratings of behavior in class, behavior problems, and quality of life. Assessment took place before, directly after and 6 months after treatment. Results showed only one replicated treatment effect on visual spatial working memory in favor of CWMT. Effects of time were found for broad neurocognitive measures, supported by parent and teacher ratings. However, no treatment or time effects were found for the measures of academic performance, behavior in class or quality of life. We suggest that methodological and non-specific treatment factors should be taken into account when interpreting current findings. Future trials with well-blinded measures and a third 'no treatment' control group are needed before cognitive training can be supported as an evidence-based treatment of ADHD. Future research should put more effort into investigating why, how and for whom cognitive training is effective as this would also potentially lead to improved intervention-and study designs.
    Frontiers in Psychology 07/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01081 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "A combination of pharmacological and psychological treatment approaches are recommended for school-aged children with ADHD (Taylor et al. 2004). However, medication can have side-effects (Handen et al. 1991; Graham & Coghill 2008) and parents can have reservations about its use for controlling behaviour, particularly in young children (Berger et al. 2008). The need for an alternative early intervention approach using non-pharmacological treatments, such as parenting programmes (PPs), has been increasingly recognized (Daley 2006; Sonuga-Barke & Halperin 2010; Sonuga-Barke et al. 2011; Charach et al. 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The importance of early intervention approaches for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been increasingly acknowledged. Parenting programmes (PPs) are recommended for use with preschool children with ADHD. However, low ‘take-up’ and high ‘drop-out’ rates compromise the effectiveness of such programmes within the community.Methods This qualitative study examined the views of 25 parents and 18 practitioners regarding currently available PPs for preschool children with ADHD-type problems in the UK. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to identify both barriers and facilitators associated with programme access, programme effectiveness, and continued engagement.Results and conclusionsMany of the themes mirrored previous accounts relating to generic PPs for disruptive behaviour problems. There were also a number of ADHD-specific themes. Enhancing parental motivation to change parenting practice and providing an intervention that addresses the parents' own needs (e.g. in relation to self-confidence, depression or parental ADHD), in addition to those of the child, were considered of particular importance. Comparisons between the views of parents and practitioners highlighted a need to increase awareness of parental psychological barriers among practitioners and for better programme advertising generally. Clinical implications and specific recommendations drawn from these findings are discussed and presented.
    Child Care Health and Development 06/2014; 41(1). DOI:10.1111/cch.12146 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent childhood and adolescent behavioural disorders affecting children worldwide. This research investigated teachers’ and parents’ knowledge of, attitudes and behaviours toward children with ADHD. Findings from this investigation then informed the development and evaluation of a pilot ADHD intervention program for pre-service teachers designed to enhance their own knowledge and skills, and to frame intervention as a shared endeavour between parents, teachers and the broader school community. Study One provided local confirmation of the broadly reported needs of teachers, pre-service teachers and parents for improved knowledge and change in attitudes toward children with ADHD. Both pre-service and in-service teachers held comparable views, though the former generally reported being less confident in their skills and abilities to manage these children. A small sample of parents of children with ADHD provided rich insight into their parenting experiences and the challenges faced in the school environment. Uniquely this study also included parents without a child with ADHD, in recognition of their importance in influencing the broader school environment for children with ADHD. Consistent with previous research, parents were somewhat informed about the characteristics of ADHD but less so about treatment. Descriptive comparisons between parents and teachers suggested that there were some similarities and some differences in what was known and what myths were held by the two groups. Study Two is in two parts. Part one of the study further investigated pre-service teachers’ knowledge of and attitudes toward children with ADHD. Seventy-seven pre-service teachers were surveyed whilst completing their third or final year of an Education degree at a university in Western Australia. There was a moderate correlation between a perceived competence factor on an Attitude Scale and scores on a Knowledge Scale. There was no greater knowledge amongst those reporting previous ADHD training at university, but there was a trend toward more unfavourable attitudes amongst respondents reporting no prior training. Descriptive analyses also showed a strong desire by pre-service teachers to engage in further ADHD training, irrespective of whether they had previous exposure to training or not. This evidence base was then used in part two of Study Two to develop and evaluate a pilot intervention for pre-service teachers to improve knowledge, attitudes and self-confidence in teachers in responding to ADHD. Forty-five attended the intervention program. Of these, twenty-eight participants completed identical measures at pre, post and follow-up time points. Pre-service teachers showed a significant improvement in their knowledge scores and perceived knowledge and skills after the workshop. Taken together, these studies suggest that while teachers have some knowledge about ADHD, there is a need for further training in order to better equip them for managing children with this condition in the classroom. Furthermore, parents with a child with ADHD desire further education about the disorder and those who do not have a child with ADHD are also likely to benefit also from education about the disorder and its corollaries in the school environment. Differences in understanding of ADHD between the groups emphasise the importance of developing a collaborative stance between teachers and parents in the school community. Finally, the pre-service pilot program was found to be an enabler for teachers to understand and work more effectively with children with the disorder. Methodological limitations and directions for future research for each study are discussed.
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