Eukaryotic-Microbiota Crosstalk: Potential Mechanisms for Health Benefits of Prebiotics and Probiotics
ABSTRACT The ability to link dietary consumption of prebiotic food ingredients and probiotic microorganisms to health benefits rests, in part, on our ability to identify both the extent to which these factors alter human microbiome activity and/or structure and the ability to engage eukaryotic cells necessary to transduce signals originating from the microbiome. The human microbiome consists of bacterial, archaeal, and fungal components that reside in mucosal surfaces of the gut, the airways, and the urogenital tract. Characterization of the symbiotic nature of the relationship between eukaryotic cells and the bacterial and archaeal components of the microbiota has revealed significant contributions in energy balance, bowel function, immunologic function, sensory perception, glycemic control, and blood pressure regulation. Elucidating the complex interactions between the microbiota and their associated epithelial, immune, and neural cells may provide mechanistic insights and a rational basis for our belief that dietary consumption of probiotic microorganisms and prebiotics produces health benefits.
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- "Systemic responses can result from sampling of microbial antigens by DCs in intestinal lumen (usually under epithelial M cells). DCs can transport antigens to local lymph nodes, present antigens to naive immune cells and activate disparate effector responses from B, T helper (Th) and Treg cells, which will further initiate a release of a distinct panel of cytokines that are capable of delivering activating and inhibitory feedback signals to effector immune cells (Hord 2008). The following sections briefly describe interactions between probiotic lactobacilli and parts of systemic immune system above cited with suitable examples. "
ABSTRACT: The mechanism by which probiotic lactobacilli affect the immune system is strain specific. As the immune system is multi-compartmental system, each strain has his way to interact with it and induce a visible and quantifiable effect. This review summarises the interplay existing between the host immune system, with emphasis on lactobacilli as a prototype probiotic genus. Several aspects including the bacterial-host cross-talk with the mucosal and systemic immune system are presented, as well as short sections on the competing effect toward pathogenic bacteria and their uses as delivery vehicle for antigens.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Journal of Applied Microbiology 08/2014; 117(2):303-319. DOI:10.1111/jam.12521 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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- "The Human Microbiome Project, an international interdisciplinary effort to "generate resources enabling comprehensive characterization of the human microbiota and analysis of its role in human health and disease," highlights the many levels of complexity of this cutting-edge science . As far as clinical applications are concerned, however, researchers are cautious in claiming mechanistic insights . "
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: Probiotic administration has been proposed for the prevention and treatment of specific allergic manifestations such as eczema, rhinitis, gastrointestinal allergy, food allergy, and asthma. However, published statements and scientific opinions disagree about the clinical usefulness. OBJECTIVE:: A World Allergy Organization Special Committee on Food Allergy and Nutrition review of the evidence regarding the use of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of allergy. METHODS:: A qualitative and narrative review of the literature on probiotic treatment of allergic disease was carried out to address the diversity and variable quality of relevant studies. This variability precluded systematization, and an expert panel group discussion method was used to evaluate the literature. In the absence of systematic reviews of treatment, meta-analyses of prevention studies were used to provide data in support of probiotic applications. RESULTS:: Despite the plethora of literature, probiotic research is still in its infancy. There is a need for basic microbiology research on the resident human microbiota. Mechanistic studies from biology, immunology, and genetics are needed before we can claim to harness the potential of immune modulatory effects of microbiota. Meanwhile, clinicians must take a step back and try to link disease state with alterations of the microbiota through well-controlled long-term studies to identify clinical indications. CONCLUSIONS:: Probiotics do not have an established role in the prevention or treatment of allergy. No single probiotic supplement or class of supplements has been demonstrated to efficiently influence the course of any allergic manifestation or long-term disease or to be sufficient to do so. Further epidemiologic, immunologic, microbiologic, genetic, and clinical studies are necessary to determine whether probiotic supplements will be useful in preventing allergy. Until then, supplementation with probiotics remains empirical in allergy medicine. In the future, basic research should focus on homoeostatic studies, and clinical research should focus on preventive medicine applications, not only in allergy. Collaborations between allergo-immunologists and microbiologists in basic research and a multidisciplinary approach in clinical research are likely to be the most fruitful.World Allergy Organization Journal 11/2012; 5(11):148-167. DOI:10.1097/WOX.0b013e3182784ee0
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- "These are short-chain polysaccharides that have unique chemical structures that are not digested by humans; in particular fructose-based oligosaccharides that exist naturally in food or are added in the food. The prebiotic consumption generally promotes the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterial growth in the gut, thus helping in metabolism (Hord 2008; Gibson 1999). Vegetables like chicory roots, banana, tomato, alliums are rich in fructo-oligosaccharides. "
ABSTRACT: Nutraceutical is the hybrid of 'nutrition' and 'pharmaceutical'. Nutraceuticals, in broad, are food or part of food playing a significant role in modifying and maintaining normal physiological function that maintains healthy human beings. The principal reasons for the growth of the nutraceutical market worldwide are the current population and the health trends. The food products used as nutraceuticals can be categorized as dietary fibre, prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants and other different types of herbal/ natural foods. These nutraceuticals help in combating some of the major health problems of the century such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, arthritis, diabetes, cholesterol etc. In whole, 'nutraceutical' has lead to the new era of medicine and health, in which the food industry has become a research oriented sector.Journal of Food Science and Technology -Mysore- 04/2012; 49(2):173-83. DOI:10.1007/s13197-011-0269-4 · 2.02 Impact Factor