Is antibiotic prophylaxis in children with vesicoureteral reflux effective in preventing pyelonephritis and renal scars? A randomized, controlled trial
ABSTRACT There has been intense discussion on the effectiveness of continuous antibiotic prophylaxis for children with vesicoureteral reflux, and randomized, controlled trials are still needed to determine the effectiveness of long-term antibiotics for the prevention of acute pyelonephritis. In this multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled trial, we tested the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing recurrence of pyelonephritis and avoiding new scars in a sample of children who were younger than 30 months and vesicoureteral reflux.
One hundred patients with vesicoureteral reflux (grade II, III, or IV) diagnosed with cystourethrography after a first episode of acute pyelonephritis were randomly assigned to receive antibiotic prophylaxis with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim or not for 2 years. The main outcome of the study was the recurrence of pyelonephritis during a follow-up period of 4 years. During follow-up, the patients were evaluated through repeated cystourethrographies, renal ultrasounds, and dimercaptosuccinic acid scans.
The baseline characteristics in the 2 study groups were similar. There were no differences in the risk for having at least 1 pyelonephritis episode between the intervention and control groups. At the end of follow-up, the presence of renal scars was the same in children with and without antibiotic prophylaxis.
Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis was ineffective in reducing the rate of pyelonephritis recurrence and the incidence of renal damage in children who were younger than 30 months and had vesicoureteral reflux grades II through IV.
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ABSTRACT: The use of continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) was critical in the evolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) from a condition in which surgery was the standard of treatment to its becoming a medically managed condition. The efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in the management of VUR has been challenged in recent years, and significant confusion exists as to its clinical value. This review summarizes the critical factors in the history, use, and investigation of antibiotic prophylaxis in VUR. This review provides suggestions for assessing the potential clinical utility of prophylaxis.11/2014; 6:104. DOI:10.12703/P6-104
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ABSTRACT: Background The conclusion drawn by the authors of the Randomized Intervention for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR) trial is that antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces the risk of recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI)—but not of renal scarring—in patients with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Results A review of the findings showed that the decreased recurrent UTI rate was only present at the end of the 2-year follow-up period and was only slightly increased (12.3 %) above the 10 % cutoff for statistical significance. The difference was not observed in children younger than two years of age with VUR grade III and IV. In addition, the rate of new renal scarring was not statistically different between the prophylaxis and placebo groups (8.2 vs. 8.4 %, respectively). A high rate of uropathogen antibiotic resistance was observed in the prophylaxis group (68.4 vs. 24.6 %, respectively). Conclusion The analysis of the RIVUR findings questions the validity of its authors suggestion that the results may warrant reconsideration of the current recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics on obtaining a voiding cystourethrogram after the first febrile UTI and the use of urinary antibiotic prophylaxis in VUR patients.Pediatric Nephrology 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00467-014-3021-2 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) increases the risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) and renal scarring. Many prospective studies have evaluated the role of antimicrobial prophylaxis in the prevention of recurrent UTI and renal scarring in children with VUR. Of these, the RIVUR trial was the largest, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, multicenter study, involving 607 children aged 2-72 months with grade I-IV VUR and a first or second symptomatic UTI. The median age of children in the RIVUR trial was 12 months, 92 % were female, 91 % were randomized after a first UTI, 86 % had a febrile index UTI, and 71 (56 %) of 126 toilet-trained children had bladder bowel dysfunction. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole reduced the risk of UTI recurrences by 50 % (hazard ratio 0.50; 95 % confidence interval 0.34-0.74) as compared to placebo. No significant difference was seen in renal scarring between the two groups. However, this does not invalidate the role of prophylaxis in preventing renal scars because RIVUR and other recent prospective studies were not designed to address renal scarring as a primary study endpoint. In view of the RIVUR Trial and other studies that showed similar results, albeit in selected groups of patients, the debate on antimicrobial prophylaxis should shift from "no prophylaxis" to "selective prophylaxis" in children with VUR.Pediatric Nephrology 01/2015; 30(5). DOI:10.1007/s00467-014-3022-1 · 2.88 Impact Factor