Redistribution of microtubules in dendrites of hippocampal CA1 neurons after tetanic stimulation during long-term potentiation.
ABSTRACT It is now well accepted that the trafficking of AMPA receptors to the postsynaptic plasma membrane plays an essential role in long-term potentiation at the hippocampal Schaffer collateral synapses on CA1 pyramidal cells, but the motor mechanism of trafficking is unknown. We suspected that this trafficking of AMPA receptors during long-term potentiation may be carried out along microtubules by their motors. To ascertain this hypothesis, we light- and electron-microscopically studied the distribution of microtubules in dendrites of CA1 neurons of non-stimulated and stimulated rat hippocampal slices by using very strong tetanic stimulation for inducing long-term potentiation. As a result, we observed the following changes: 1. In immunofluorescence for microtubules and IP3 receptor using ultrathin-cryosections, linear signals of microtubules in main dendritic shafts were changed into fragmented. 2. Many spotty signals of microtubules emerged at the peripheral area of dendrites. Electron-microscopically, there was redistribution of microtubules in dendritic spines and dendritic shafts, and the thickening of post-synaptic density. 3. Many microtubules concentrated to thickened postsynaptic density in spines and new ones emerged, going to spines from dendritic shafts. These results strongly suggest that new tracks of microtubules from cell bodies to the stimulated postsynaptic membranes were produced after tetanic stimulation during long-term potentiation. This newly produced microtubules between stimulated postsynaptic membranes and the cell body must be the most promising candidate of the track for the trafficking of AMPA receptors to the stimulated postsynaptic plasma membrane.
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ABSTRACT: Background: In this body of work we investigate the synergistic-topological relationship during self-organization of the microtubule fiber in vitro, which is composed of straight, axially shifted and non-shifted, acentrosomal microtubules under crowded conditions. Methods: We used electron microscopy to observe morphological details of ordered straight microtubules. This included the observation of the differences in length distribution between microtubules in ordered and non-ordered phases followed by the observation of the formation of interface gaps between axially shifted and ordered microtubules. We performed calculations to confirm that the principle of summation of pairwise electrostatic forces act between neighboring microtubules all their entire length. Results: We have shown that the self-organization of a microtubule fiber imposes a variety of topological restrictions onto its constituting components: (a) tips of axially shifted neighboring microtubules are not in direct contact but rather create an ? interface gap? ; (b) fibers are always composed of a restricted number of microtubules at given solution conditions; (c) the average length of microtubules that constitute a fiber is always shorter than that of microtubules outside a fiber; (d) the length distribution of microtubules that constitute a fiber is narrower than that of microtubules outside a fiber and this effect is more pronounced at higher GTP-tubulin concentrations; (e) a cooperative motion of fiber microtubules due to actualization of the summation principle of pairwise electrostatic forces; (f) appearance of local GTP-tubulin depletion immediately in front of the tips of fiber microtubules. Conclusion: Overall our data indicate that under crowded conditions in vitro, the self-organization of a microtubule fiber is governed by an intrinsic synergistic-topological mechanism, which in conjunction with the topological changes, GTP-tubulin depletion, and cooperative motion of fiber constituting microtubules, may generate and maintain a ? synergistic-topological matrix? . Failure of the mechanism to form biologically feasible microtubule synergistic-topological matrix may, per se, precondition tumorigenesis.Nonlinear Biomedical Physics 12/2014; 2:15.
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ABSTRACT: During development, dynamic changes in the axonal growth cone and dendrite are necessary for exploratory movements underlying initial axo-dendritic contact and ultimately the formation of a functional synapse. In the adult central nervous system, an impressive degree of plasticity is retained through morphological and molecular rearrangements in the pre- and post-synaptic compartments that underlie the strengthening or weakening of synaptic pathways. Plasticity is regulated by the interplay of permissive and inhibitory extracellular cues, which signal through receptors at the synapse to regulate the closure of critical periods of developmental plasticity as well as by acute changes in plasticity in response to experience and activity in the adult. The molecular underpinnings of synaptic plasticity are actively studied and it is clear that the cytoskeleton is a key substrate for many cues that affect plasticity. Many of the cues that restrict synaptic plasticity exhibit residual activity in the injured adult CNS and restrict regenerative growth by targeting the cytoskeleton. Here, we review some of the latest insights into how cytoskeletal remodeling affects neuronal plasticity and discuss how the cytoskeleton is being targeted in an effort to promote plasticity and repair following traumatic injury in the central nervous system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Journal of Neurochemistry 10/2013; DOI:10.1111/jnc.12502 · 4.24 Impact Factor