Prognostic significance of Nottingham histologic grade in invasive breast carcinoma
ABSTRACT The three strongest prognostic determinants in operable breast cancer used in routine clinical practice are lymph node (LN) stage, primary tumor size, and histologic grade. However, grade is not included in the recent revision of the TNM staging system of breast cancer as its value is questioned in certain settings.
This study is based on a large and well-characterized consecutive series of operable breast cancer (2,219 cases), treated according to standard protocols in a single institution, with a long-term follow-up (median, 111 months) to assess the prognostic value of routine assessment of histologic grade using Nottingham histologic grading system.
Histologic grade is strongly associated with both breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in the whole series as well as in different subgroups based on tumor size (pT1a, pT1b, pT1c, and pT2) and LN stages (pN0 and pN1 and pN2). Differences in survival were also noted between different individual grades (1, 2, and 3). Multivariate analyses showed that histologic grade is an independent predictor of both BCSS and DFS in operable breast cancer as a whole as well as in all studied subgroups.
Histologic grade, as assessed by the Nottingham grading system, provides a strong predictor of outcome in patients with invasive breast cancer and should be incorporated in breast cancer staging systems.
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) Thr325Ile polymorphism and TAFI antigen (Ag) levels in breast cancer (BC) in the Egyptian population to clarify their role in relation to BC. A group of 300 females was recruited in this study; of these 150 unrelated patients with different stages of BC and 150 age-matched healthy controls. Plasma TAFI Ag was measured by ELISA and TAFI Thr325Ile (rs1926447) polymorphism was genotyped using TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assay. The results showed the genotypes of the minor allele; Thr/Ile (CT) and Ile/Ile (TT) were significantly more frequent in patients compared to control group (50.0% and 22.0% vs. 42.0% and 13.3%, respectively) and were also associated with BC susceptibility [OR = 1.9 and 2.6; 95% CI: (1.1–3.3) and (1.3–5.5), respectively P = 0.01]. Ile325 allele carriers were more frequent in cases than in controls (47.0% vs. 34.0%) [OR = 1.7, (95% CI = 1.2–2.4), P = 0.001]. However, TAFI Thr325Ile polymorphism was not associated with BC stage or other clincopathological characteristics. TAFI Ag levels were correlated with advanced stages of BC, poor prognosis and risk of recurrence (P = 0.02, P = 0.04 and P < 0.001, respectively) and Thr325Ile SNP was significantly correlated with TAFI antigen levels with the C/C genotype corresponding to the highest and the T/T genotype to the lowest TAFI antigen levels (P < 0.001) in the study groups. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that TAFI Thr325Ile polymorphism could have a contribution to BC susceptibility in our population. Furthermore, high TAFI plasma levels may serve as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with BC.06/2015; 4. DOI:10.1016/j.mgene.2015.03.004
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ABSTRACT: The seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for breast cancer differentiates patients with T1 tumors and lymph node micrometastases (stage IB) from patients with T1 tumors and negative nodes (stage IA). This study was undertaken to determine the utility of the stage IB designation. The following two cohorts of patients with breast cancer were identified: 3,474 patients treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center from 1993 to 2007 and 4,590 patients from the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z0010 trial. Clinicopathologic and outcomes data were recorded, and disease was staged according to the seventh edition AJCC staging system. Recurrence-free survival (RFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS) were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Median follow-up times were 6.1 years and 9.0 years for the MD Anderson Cancer Center and ACOSOG cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, there were no significant differences between patients with stage IA and stage IB disease in 5- or 10-year RFS, DSS, or OS. Estrogen receptor (ER) status and grade significantly stratified patients with stage I disease with respect to RFS, DSS, and OS. Among patients with T1 breast cancer, individuals with micrometastases and those with negative nodes have similar survival outcomes. ER status and grade are better discriminants of survival than the presence of small-volume nodal metastases. In preparing the next edition of the AJCC staging system, consideration should be given to eliminating the stage IB designation and incorporating biologic factors. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/2014; DOI:10.1200/JCO.2014.57.2958 · 17.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clinical decisions regarding the suitability of adjuvant systemic therapy for individual patients with breast cancer depends on comprehensive assessment of the underlying biology of each patient's tumor. The previous clinical-pathologic paradigm for treatment, which had been used for decades, now has been augmented by significant advances in molecular analysis of breast tumor tissue samples. Molecular testing has the potential to understand better both tumor biology and clinical behavior, which enables more appropriate therapy choices to be made. We review the rapid evolution in profiling breast cancer tissues, and discuss the current evidence for clinical use of this information and how the emerging molecular paradigm can be integrated into the clinical-pathologic context as we progress toward "precision" therapy for patients with breast cancer and other solid tumors.Biotechnic and Histochemistry 12/2014; 90(2):1-12. DOI:10.3109/10520295.2014.978893 · 1.00 Impact Factor