Cholesterol embolization in a renal graft.
ABSTRACT Cholesterol embolization into native kidneys has a dim prognosis for renal function and frequently leads to irreversible renal failure. Although uncommon, cholesterol embolization may also occur in renal allografts, particularly if either the recipient or the donor has prominent atherosclerosis. We report here on a case of a 65-yr-old man with cholesterol emboli in the renal allograft and delayed graft function. The recipient's arteria iliaca externa was a potential source because of heavy atherosclerosis. The patient was dialysis-dependent for two wk after transplantation. However, renal function improved, no cholesterol emboli were found in a second biopsy of the graft and serum creatinine is 260 micromol/L six months after the transplantation. In the case of primary renal non-function or dysfunction, cholesterol embolization must be considered in the differential diagnosis. If renal cholesterol embolization originates from the recipient, allograft survival is usually good. In contrast, if cholesterol embolization is of donor origin, graft dysfunction and subsequent graft loss are common. The reason for this difference may be the more extensive embolization developing in an atherosclerotic cadaver donor occurring during the organ procurement or the severe trauma leading to death.
- The Lancet 06/1998; 351(9112):1331-2. · 39.06 Impact Factor
- Kidney International 11/2006; 70(8):1525; author reply 1525. · 7.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cholesterol crystal embolization (CCE) frequently presents with nonspecific manifestations that mimic other systemic diseases. The authors reviewed 221 cases of histologically proven CCE in the English literature to define the clinical, laboratory, and pathologic characteristics of this disorder. CCE affected predominantly elderly males (mean age sixty-six) with a frequent history of hypertension (61%), atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (44%), renal failure (34%), and aortic aneurysms (25%) at presentation. At least one possible predisposing factor was present in 31% and included operative and radiological vascular procedures and the use of anticoagulants. Cutaneous findings (34%) and renal failure (50%) were two of the most common clinical findings throughout the course of CCE. The nonspecific signs and symptoms included: fever (7%), weight loss (7%), myalgias (4%), and headache (3%). Premortem diagnoses were established in 31% of patients most commonly by biopsy of the muscle, skin, and kidney. Mortality was high (81%) and was most commonly due to multifactorial, cardiac, and renal etiologies. The authors conclude that CCE should be strongly considered in elderly patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease who have the onset of renal insufficiency and cutaneous manifestations. CCE may be confirmed by a skin or muscle biopsy.Angiology 11/1987; 38(10):769-84. · 1.65 Impact Factor