Postmarketing safety surveillance for typhoid fever vaccines from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, July 1990 through June 2002.
ABSTRACT Vaccines against Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi are used for prophylaxis of international travelers and have potential use as counterbioterrorism agents. The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) cannot usually establish causal relationships between vaccines and reported adverse events without further research but has successfully detected unrecognized side effects of vaccine. We reviewed reports to VAERS for US-licensed typhoid fever vaccines for the period of July 1990 through June 2002. We received 321 reports for parenteral Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine and 345 reports for live, oral, attenuated Ty21a vaccine, with 7.5% and 5.5%, respectively, describing death, hospitalization, permanent disability, or life-threatening illness. Unexpected frequently reported symptoms included dizziness and pruritus for Vi vaccine and fatigue and myalgia for Ty21a vaccine. Gastroenteritis-like illness after receipt of Ty21a vaccine and abdominal pain after receipt of Vi vaccine, which are previously recognized events, occasionally required hospitalization. Nonfatal anaphylaxis was reported after both vaccines. VAERS reports do not indicate any unexpected serious side effects that compromise these vaccines' use for travelers' prophylaxis.
SourceAvailable from: Stephen Y. Liang[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Immunocompromised patients are traveling at increasing rates. Physicians caring for these complex patients must be knowledgeable in pretravel consultation and recognize when referral to an infectious disease specialist is warranted. This article outlines disease prevention associated with international travel for adults with human immunodeficiency virus, asplenia, solid organ and hematopoietic transplantation, and other immunosuppressed states. While rates of infection may not differ significantly between healthy and immunocompromised travelers, the latter are at greater risk for severe disease. A thorough assessment of these risks can ensure safe and healthy travel. The travel practitioners' goal should be to provide comprehensive risk information and recommend appropriate vaccinations or prevention measures tailored to each patient's condition. In some instances, live vaccines and prophylactic medications may be contraindicated.Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 01/2015; 11:217-28. DOI:10.2147/TCRM.S52008 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Typhoid infection causes considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in settings where lack of clean water and inadequate sanitation facilitate disease spread through faecal-oral transmission. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis, immune control and microbiology of Salmonella Typhi infection can help accelerate the development of improved vaccines and diagnostic tests necessary for disease control. S. Typhi is a human-restricted pathogen; therefore animal models are limited in their relevance to human infection. During the latter half of the 20th century, induced human infection (“challenge”) studies with S. Typhi were used effectively to assess quantitatively the human host response to challenge and to measure directly the efficacy of typhoid vaccines in preventing clinical illness. Here, the findings of these historic challenge studies are reviewed, highlighting the pivotal role that challenge studies have had in improving our understanding of the host-pathogen interaction, and illustrating issues relevant to modern typhoid challenge model design.The Journal of infection 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jinf.2014.01.006 · 4.02 Impact Factor
Article: Vaccination in Elite Athletes[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Public health vaccination guidelines cannot be easily transferred to elite athletes. An enhanced benefit from preventing even mild diseases is obvious but stronger interference from otherwise minor side effects has to be considered as well. Thus, special vaccination guidelines for adult elite athletes are required. In most of them, protection should be strived for against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, measles, mumps and varicella. When living or traveling to endemic areas, the athletes should be immune against tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, poliomyelitis, typhoid fever, and meningococcal disease. Vaccination against pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae type b is only relevant in athletes with certain underlying disorders. Rubella and papillomavirus vaccination might be considered after an individual risk-benefit analysis. Other vaccinations such as cholera, rabies, herpes zoster, and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) cannot be universally recommended for athletes at present. Only for a very few diseases, a determination of antibody titers is reasonable to avoid unnecessary vaccinations or to control efficacy of an individual's vaccination (especially for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis B and, partly, hepatitis A). Vaccinations should be scheduled in a way that possible side effects are least likely to occur in periods of competition. Typically, vaccinations are well tolerated by elite athletes, and resulting antibody titers are not different from the general population. Side effects might be reduced by an optimal selection of vaccines and an appropriate technique of administration. Very few discipline-specific considerations apply to an athlete's vaccination schedule mainly from the competition and training pattern as well as from the typical geographical distribution of competitive sites.Sports Medicine 07/2014; 44(10). DOI:10.1007/s40279-014-0217-3 · 5.32 Impact Factor