Postmarketing safety surveillance for typhoid fever vaccines from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, July 1990 through June 2002
ABSTRACT Vaccines against Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi are used for prophylaxis of international travelers and have potential use as counterbioterrorism agents. The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) cannot usually establish causal relationships between vaccines and reported adverse events without further research but has successfully detected unrecognized side effects of vaccine. We reviewed reports to VAERS for US-licensed typhoid fever vaccines for the period of July 1990 through June 2002. We received 321 reports for parenteral Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine and 345 reports for live, oral, attenuated Ty21a vaccine, with 7.5% and 5.5%, respectively, describing death, hospitalization, permanent disability, or life-threatening illness. Unexpected frequently reported symptoms included dizziness and pruritus for Vi vaccine and fatigue and myalgia for Ty21a vaccine. Gastroenteritis-like illness after receipt of Ty21a vaccine and abdominal pain after receipt of Vi vaccine, which are previously recognized events, occasionally required hospitalization. Nonfatal anaphylaxis was reported after both vaccines. VAERS reports do not indicate any unexpected serious side effects that compromise these vaccines' use for travelers' prophylaxis.
- SourceAvailable from: Tim Meyer
- "Efficacy seems to be higher using the new vaccine (<75 % seroconversion) compared with the two others (~50 %) [101, 102]. The oral vaccine rarely has side effects that mainly consist of abdominal discomfort, nausea and vomiting, whereas with the parenteral vaccines the local reactions at the site of injection dominate . Theoretically, the live vaccine’s effect can be diminished by the use of antibiotics. "
Article: Vaccination in Elite Athletes[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Public health vaccination guidelines cannot be easily transferred to elite athletes. An enhanced benefit from preventing even mild diseases is obvious but stronger interference from otherwise minor side effects has to be considered as well. Thus, special vaccination guidelines for adult elite athletes are required. In most of them, protection should be strived for against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, measles, mumps and varicella. When living or traveling to endemic areas, the athletes should be immune against tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, poliomyelitis, typhoid fever, and meningococcal disease. Vaccination against pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae type b is only relevant in athletes with certain underlying disorders. Rubella and papillomavirus vaccination might be considered after an individual risk-benefit analysis. Other vaccinations such as cholera, rabies, herpes zoster, and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) cannot be universally recommended for athletes at present. Only for a very few diseases, a determination of antibody titers is reasonable to avoid unnecessary vaccinations or to control efficacy of an individual's vaccination (especially for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis B and, partly, hepatitis A). Vaccinations should be scheduled in a way that possible side effects are least likely to occur in periods of competition. Typically, vaccinations are well tolerated by elite athletes, and resulting antibody titers are not different from the general population. Side effects might be reduced by an optimal selection of vaccines and an appropriate technique of administration. Very few discipline-specific considerations apply to an athlete's vaccination schedule mainly from the competition and training pattern as well as from the typical geographical distribution of competitive sites.Sports Medicine 07/2014; 44(10). DOI:10.1007/s40279-014-0217-3 · 5.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To clarify indications for typhoid vaccination, we reviewed laboratory-confirmed cases of typhoid fever reported to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between 1994 and 1999. To estimate the risk of adverse events associated with typhoid vaccination, we reviewed reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System for the same period. Acute Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi infection was reported for 1393 patients. Of these patients, recent travel was reported by 1027 (74%), only 36 (4%) of whom reported having received a vaccination. Six countries accounted for 76% of travel-associated cases (India [30%], Pakistan [13%], Mexico [12%], Bangladesh [8%], The Philippines [8%], and Haiti [5%]). For 626 travelers who traveled to a single country, the length of stay was <or=1 week for 31 (5%), <or=2 weeks for 100 (16%), <or=3 weeks for 169 (27%), <or=4 weeks for 232 (37%), <or=5 weeks for 338 (54%), and <or=6 weeks for 376 (60%). Reports of serious adverse events due to typhoid vaccination were very rare. Vaccination should be considered even for persons planning short-term travel to high-risk areas.Clinical Infectious Diseases 08/2004; 39(2):186-91. DOI:10.1086/421945 · 9.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the last 5 years, regulatory agencies and drug monitoring centres have been developing computerised data-mining methods to better identify reporting relationships in spontaneous reporting databases that could signal possible adverse drug reactions. At present, there are no guidelines or standards for the use of these methods in routine pharmaco-vigilance. In 2003, a group of statisticians, pharmaco-epidemiologists and pharmaco-vigilance professionals from the pharmaceutical industry and the US FDA formed the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America-FDA Collaborative Working Group on Safety Evaluation Tools to review best practices for the use of these methods.In this paper, we provide an overview of: (i) the statistical and operational attributes of several currently used methods and their strengths and limitations; (ii) information about the characteristics of various postmarketing safety databases with which these tools can be deployed; (iii) analytical considerations for using safety data-mining methods and interpreting the results; and (iv) points to consider in integration of safety data mining with traditional pharmaco-vigilance methods. Perspectives from both the FDA and the industry are provided. Data mining is a potentially useful adjunct to traditional pharmaco-vigilance methods. The results of data mining should be viewed as hypothesis generating and should be evaluated in the context of other relevant data. The availability of a publicly accessible global safety database, which is updated on a frequent basis, would further enhance detection and communication about safety issues.Drug Safety 02/2005; 28(11):981-1007. DOI:10.2165/00002018-200528110-00002 · 2.62 Impact Factor