Levetiracetam for treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a pilot, open-label study.
ABSTRACT Kindling and impaired electroencephalophysiology have been suggested to play a role in the pathophysiology of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Levetiracetam is a novel antiepileptic drug which has shown strong anti-kindling activity in animal models of epilepsy. In this preliminary prospective study we examined the safety and efficacy of levetiracetam for the treatment of PMDD. One hundred twenty-three potential patients were prospectively screened to enroll seven patients into the open-label treatment phase of the study. PMDD was diagnosed per DSM-IV-TR criteria and two consecutive months of prospective ratings of Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP). The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to exclude any co-morbid conditions. Levetiracetam was started at 250 mg qhs at the end of the first week of the follicular phase. Dosage was gradually increased up to 1,500 mg bid as tolerated or clinically effective. The treatment phase lasted 4 months. Response to treatment was evaluated by Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and DRSP scores. Six out of seven patients experienced a considerable decrease in their DRSP scores with levetiracetam, starting from the first treatment cycle. One patient dropped out of the study due to lack of efficacy after one cycle. Medication was fairly well tolerated. Improvements in food cravings and premenstrual headaches were also noted as unexpected benefits. Anticonvulsant medications, specifically levetiracetam, could be effective in the treatment of PMDD. Future double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized studies are warranted and should include larger number of patients.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of the current study was to translate and test psychometric properties of the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST) in Iran. Using a standard "forward-backward" procedure, the English version of PSST was translated into Persian. A random sample of university students aged 18 years and over completed the questionnaire in Tehran, Iran. Psychometric properties of the Iranian version of PSST were assessed by performing reliability (internal consistency) and validity analyses [Content Validity Ratio (CVR) and Content Validity Index (CVI)]. In all, 925 female students took part in the study. Of these, 284 (30.7 %) had premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and 119 (12.9 %) had premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Reliability of the PSST as measured by internal consistency was found to be satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha coefficient, 0.93). The content validity as assessed by CVR and CVI were desirable (0.7 and 0.8, respectively). The Iranian version of PSST seems to be a reliable and valid measure of detecting PMS and PMDD in Iranian young female populations.Archives of Women s Mental Health 08/2013; 16(6). DOI:10.1007/s00737-013-0375-6 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a complex behavioral, emotional, cognitive and physical disorder associated with the monthly menstrual cycle. The disorder is observed in about 80 % of ovulating women and associated with marked anxiety, depression, and fatigue. The monthly disorder could be managed by changes in life style, diet, over the counter medications, herbs and in some sever cases only by prescription medications.
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ABSTRACT: Summary form only given. Nonidentical multiple quantum wells (MQWs) have been widely used for broadening gain bandwidth of semiconductor lasers and amplifiers. However, carrier distribution among those MQWs is not uniform and thus complicates actual gain profiles. In this work, we further explore the dependence of carrier distribution on temperature and discover that temperature characteristics of semiconductor lasers with nonidentical MQWs are very different from conventional ones with identical MQWs. The origin is due to the strongly temperature-dependent Fermi-Dirac distribution, which favors carriers in high-energy states at large temperature. As a result, carriers redistribute among those QWs as temperature varies. For laser diodes with nonidentical MQWs, the temperature-induced carrier redistribution could make the lasing wavelength much less dependent on temperature, compared to the bandgap shrinkage. Theoretical reasons and experimental evidence are given.