The possible tole of food-derived bioactive peptides in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 4.59). 06/2008; 19(10):643-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2007.11.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, stroke or myocardial infarction are a significant public health problem worldwide. Attempts to prevent vascular diseases often imply modifications and improvement of causative risk factors such as high blood pressure, obesity, an unfavorable profile of blood lipids or insulin resistance. In addition to numerous preventive and therapeutic drug regimens, there has been increased focus on identifying dietary compounds that may contribute to cardiovascular health in recent years. Food-derived bioactive peptides represent one such source of health-enhancing components. They can be released during gastrointestinal digestion or food processing from a multitude of plant and animal proteins, especially milk, soy or fish proteins. Biologically active peptides are considered to promote diverse activities, including opiate-like, mineral binding, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, hypocholesterolemic and antihypertensive actions. By modulating and improving physiological functions, bioactive peptides may provide new therapeutic applications for the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. As components of functional foods or nutraceuticals with certain health claims, bioactive peptides are of commercial interest as well. The current review centers on bioactive peptides with properties relevant to cardiovascular health.

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Available from: Kati Erdmann, Jan 28, 2015
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    • "Functional food derived from bioactive peptides is one of the healthy and beneficial food sources, such as bovine or goat milk, and various meat, fish or plants. Those foods have provided neonates and adults with important physiological mechanism[8]. This peptide was suggested as immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory agents[9]. "
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    • "A relationship exists between food peptides and cholesterol metabolism. They can act on the key enzyme of cholesterol synthesis (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase–HMG-CoA reductase) and/or are capable of inhibiting the absorption of dietary cholesterol, inhibiting cholesterol transport proteins or disrupting the cholesterol micelles in the lumen (Dziuba, Iwaniak, & Minkiewicz, 2003; Erdmann, Cheung, & Schroder, 2008; Zhang et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to assess the hypocholesterolemic activity of peptides obtained by in vitro simulated human digestion of cowpea bean proteins; moreover, we have screened the bioactive peptides through chromatographic separation by RP-HPLC of the 3 kDa molecular mass cut-off fraction of hydrolyzed isolated cowpea protein. Micellar solubility of cholesterol was measured after adding 35 μg mL− 1 of each fraction on in vitro prepared intestine-like micelles. The inhibiting activity of each fraction (50 μg mL− 1) also was tested on the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase). The whole hydrolysate was analyzed by ‘de novo’ mass spectrometry peptide sequencing (RP-HPLC-MS2) and the top score candidate peptide sequences were further analyzed by computational modeling. All collected fractions inhibited the initial HMG-CoA reductase activity by 47.8 to 57.1%. They also reduced cholesterol micellar solubilization, with fraction 1 being the most effective (71.7%). The peptide conserved domains may interact with the phosphatidylcholine added in the reaction of the cholesterol micelles. According with a computational prediction, the only peptide able to bind significantly the HMG-CoA reductase was GCTLN. This is the first report of peptide fractions from cowpea bean protein released by human digestion enzymes (pepsin followed by pancreatin) assigned to its cholesterol-lowering effect. These routes may define their action in lipid metabolism.
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    • "Depending on the sequence of amino acid, peptides exhibit various biological activities such as antioxidant (Erdmann et al. 2008, Sabeena et al. 2010, Perna et al. 2013), antimicrobial (Haque and Chand 2008, Meira et al. 2012), immunomodulatory (Vinderola et al. 2007, Qian et al. 2011), antithrombic (Erdmann et al. 2008), hypocholesterimic (Nagaoka et al. 1992, Hartmann and Meisel 2007), and antihypertensive properties (Chen et al. 2010, Phelan and Kerins 2011). Bioactive peptides and biological properties of selected protein-rich fermented foods are shown in "
    Health benefits of fermented food and beverages, Edited by Jyoti Prakash Tamang, 04/2015: chapter 14: pages 457-476; CRC Press., ISBN: 978-1-46-658809-7
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