Inhibition of estrogen receptor alpha expression and function in MCF-7 cells by kaempferol.
ABSTRACT Estrogens are mitogenic for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cells. Current treatment of ER-positive breast tumors is directed towards interruption of estrogen activity. We report that treatment of ER-positive breast cancer cells with kaempferol resulted in a time- and dose-dependent decrease in cell number. The concentration required to produce 50% growth inhibition at 48 h was approximately 35.0 and 70.0 microM for ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancer cells, respectively. For MCF-7 cells, a reduction in the ER-alpha mRNA equivalent to 50, 12, 10% of controls was observed 24 h after treatment with 17.5, 35.0, and 70.0 microM of kaempferol, respectively. Concomitantly, these treatments led to a 58, 80, and 85% decrease in ER-alpha protein. The inhibitory effect of kaempferol on ER-alpha levels was seen as early as 6 h post-treatment. Kaempferol treatment also led in a dose-dependent decrease in the expression of progesterone receptor (PgR), cyclin D1, and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1). Immunocytochemical study revealed that ER-alpha protein in kaempferol-treated MCF-7 cells formed an aggregation in the nuclei. Kaempferol also induced degradation of ER-alpha by a different pathway than that were observed for the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 and estradiol. Estradiol-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation and expression of the estrogen-responsive-element-reporter gene activity were abolished in cells co-treated with kaempferol. These findings suggest that modulation of ER-alpha expression and function by kaempferol may be, in part, responsible for its anti-proliferative effects seen in in vitro.
Article: Kaempferol nanoparticles achieve strong and selective inhibition of ovarian cancer cell viability.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death for women throughout the Western world. Kaempferol, a natural flavonoid, has shown promise in the chemoprevention of ovarian cancer. A common concern about using dietary supplements for chemoprevention is their bioavailability. Nanoparticles have shown promise in increasing the bioavailability of some chemicals. Here we developed five different types of nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol and tested their efficacy in the inhibition of viability of cancerous and normal ovarian cells. We found that positively charged nanoparticle formulations did not lead to a significant reduction in cancer cell viability, whereas nonionic polymeric nanoparticles resulted in enhanced reduction of cancer cell viability. Among the nonionic polymeric nanoparticles, poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol led to significant reduction in cell viability of both cancerous and normal cells. Poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol resulted in enhanced reduction of cancer cell viability together with no significant reduction in cell viability of normal cells compared with kaempferol alone. Therefore, both PEO-PPO-PEO and PLGA nanoparticle formulations were effective in reducing cancer cell viability, while PLGA nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol had selective toxicity against cancer cells and normal cells. A PLGA nanoparticle formulation could be advantageous in the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancers. On the other hand, PEO-PPO-PEO nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol were more effective inhibitors of cancer cells, but they also significantly reduced the viability of normal cells. PEO-PPO-PEO nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol may be suitable as a cancer-targeting strategy, which could limit the effects of the nanoparticles on normal cells while retaining their potency against cancer cells. We have identified two nanoparticle formulations incorporating kaempferol that may lead to breakthroughs in cancer treatment. Both PEO-PPO-PEO and PLGA nanoparticle formulations had superior effects compared with kaempferol alone in reducing cancer cell viability.International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2012; 7:3951-9. · 3.13 Impact Factor
Article: Sustained ERK activation is involved in the kaempferol-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells and is more evident under 3-D culture condition.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In order to determine the effects of a variety of flavonoids, we applied differing amounts of several flavonoids to human breast cancer cells. Kaempferol treatment resulted in significant reduction of cell viability in the MCF-7 cells, although it exerted only minor effect on the cell viability of MDA-MB-231 or mammary epithelial HC-11 cells. Kaempferol was demonstrated to induce sustained ERK activation concomitantly with MEK1 and ELK1 activation, and this kaempferol-induced apoptosis was suppressed by treatment with PD98059, the overexpression of a kinase-inactive ERK mutant, or ERK siRNA. Kaempferol treatment was shown to profoundly induce the generation of fluorescent DCF in the MCF-7 cells, and treatment with N-acetyl cysteine suppressed kaempferol-induced PARP cleavage. Moreover, because breast cancer is associated with increased collagen synthesis and accumulation, we utilized a collagen-based 3D culture method. Under the 3-dimensional culture condition employed herein, kaempferol treatment was shown to result in a significant reduction in cell viability, an effect which occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with what was observed under conventional 2D culture condition, we observed more evident apoptotic cell death and ERK activation as the result of kaempferol treatment in a collagen-based 3D culture environment. Similar to the case of conventional 2D cultured cells, the addition of PD98059 significantly suppressed intracellular ROS production. Collectively, these results show that the sustained activation of the ERK signaling pathway is markedly involved in kaempferol-induced apoptosis of breast cancer MCF-7 cells, and that this effect is more evident under 3D culture condition.Cancer biology & therapy 05/2008; 7(7):1080-9. · 2.64 Impact Factor