Medical Countermeasures for Radiation Combined Injury: Radiation with Burn, Blast, Trauma and/or Sepsis. Report of an NIAID Workshop, March 26–27, 2007
ABSTRACT Non-clinical human radiation exposure events such as the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings or the Chernobyl accident are often coupled with other forms of injury, such as wounds, burns, blunt trauma, and infection. Radiation combined injury would also be expected after a radiological or nuclear attack. Few animal models of radiation combined injury exist, and mechanisms underlying the high mortality associated with complex radiation injuries are poorly understood. Medical countermeasures are currently available for management of the non-radiation components of radiation combined injury, but it is not known whether treatments for other insults will be effective when the injury is combined with radiation exposure. Further research is needed to elucidate mechanisms behind the synergistic lethality of radiation combined injury and to identify targets for medical countermeasures. To address these issues, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases convened a workshop to make recommendations on the development of animal models of radiation combined injury, possible mechanisms of radiation combined injury, and future directions for countermeasure research, including target identification and end points to evaluate treatment efficacy.
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), induced by a promising radiation countermeasure, gamma tocotrienol (GT3), in protecting mice from lethal doses of ionizing radiation. CD2F1 mice were injected with an optimal dose of GT3 and a G-CSF antibody, and their 30-d survival was monitored. An appropriate antibody isotype was used as a control. Multiplex Luminex was used to analyze GT3-induced cytokines. G-CSF neutralization by exogenous administration of a G-CSF antibody was confirmed by analyzing serum cytokine levels. Our results demonstrate that GT3 significantly protected mice against ionizing radiation, and induced high levels of G-CSF in peripheral blood 24h after administration. Injection of a G-CSF neutralizing antibody to the GT3-treated mice resulted in complete neutralization of G-CSF and abrogation of its protective efficacy. Administration of a G-CSF antibody did not affect levels of other cytokines induced by GT3. Histopathology of bone marrow from GT3-treated and -irradiated mice demonstrated protection of the hematopoietic tissue, and also that such protection was abrogated by administering a G-CSF antibody. Our results suggest that induction of high levels of G-CSF by GT3 administration is responsible for its protective efficacy against radiation injury.Cytokine 04/2013; 62(2). DOI:10.1016/j.cyto.2013.03.009 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The search for ideal protective agents for use in a variety of radiation scenarios has continued for more than six decades. This review evaluates agents and procedures that have the potential to protect against acute and late effects of ionising radiation when administered either before or after radiation exposure. CONCLUSION: Over the years, extensive experimental studies of radiation-protective agents have enhanced our knowledge of radiation physics, chemistry, and biology. However, translation of agents from animal testing to use in various scenarios, such as prophylactic adjuncts in radiotherapy or post-exposure treatments for potential victims of radiation accidents/incidents, has been slow. Nevertheless, a number of compounds are now available for use in a variety of radiation situations. These include agents approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in reducing exposure to internal radionuclides (Prussian blue, calcium diethylenetriamene pentaacetate (DTPA) and zinc DTPA, potassium iodide) and amifostine for alleviating xerostomia associated with radiotherapy. Consensus groups have also recommended other therapies such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for radiation-induced neutropenia. The variety of prophylactic and therapeutic agents in the research pipeline includes those that are naturally-occurring with low toxicity, provide a long window of protection, protect normal tissue while sensitising tumours, or act via receptors and modulate biological processes such as induction of genes responsible for radioresistance. The search for agents that protect against acute and late effects of ionising radiation injury will undoubtedly continue into the future and influence other areas of radiation research.International Journal of Radiation Biology 08/2009; 85(7):539-73. DOI:10.1080/09553000902985144 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Accidental irradiations induce a complex pathological situation, difficult to assess and to treat. However, recent results describing new biological indicators of radiation-induced damages such as Flt3-ligand, citrulline and oxysterol concentration in the plasma, together with results obtained in large animal models of high dose irradiation, allowed a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms induced by uncontrolled irradiations. This conducted to leave the classical paradigm of the acute radiation syndrome, described as the association of three individual syndromes, the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastro-intestinal syndrome and the cerebrovascular syndrome, in favour of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, with the implication of other organs and systems. Follow-up of victims from two recent radiation accidents brings a confirmation of the usefulness of the newly described biological indicators, and also a partial confirmation of this new concept of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.Medecine Nucleaire 09/2009; 33(9):558-570. DOI:10.1016/j.mednuc.2009.04.003 · 0.16 Impact Factor