Ost alpha-Ost beta is required for bile acid and conjugated steroid disposition in the intestine, kidney, and liver
ABSTRACT Mice deficient in the organic solute transporter (Ost)-alpha subunit of the heteromeric organic solute and steroid transporter, Ostalpha-Ostbeta, were generated and were found to be viable and fertile but exhibited small intestinal hypertrophy and growth retardation. Bile acid pool size and serum levels were decreased by more than 60% in Ostalpha-/- mice, whereas fecal bile acid excretion was unchanged, suggesting a defect in intestinal bile acid absorption. In support of this hypothesis, when [3H]taurocholic acid or [3H]estrone 3-sulfate were administered into the ileal lumen, absorption was lower in Ostalpha-/- mice. Interestingly, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also approximately 15% lower in Ostalpha-/- mice, an effect that may be related to the impaired intestinal bile acid absorption. After intraperitoneal administration of [3H]estrone 3-sulfate or [3H]dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, Ostalpha-/- mice had higher levels of radioactivity in their liver and urinary bladder and less in the duodenum, indicating altered hepatic, renal, and intestinal disposition. Loss of Ostalpha was associated with compensatory changes in the expression of several genes involved in bile acid homeostasis, including an increase in the multidrug resistance-associated protein 3, (Mrp3)/Abcc3, an alternate basolateral bile acid export pump, and a decrease in cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, Cyp7a1, the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis. The latter finding may be explained by increased ileal expression of fibroblast growth factor 15 (Fgf15), a negative regulator of hepatic Cyp7a1 transcription. Overall, these findings provide direct support for the hypothesis that Ostalpha-Ostbeta is a major basolateral transporter of bile acids and conjugated steroids in the intestine, kidney, and liver.
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ABSTRACT: The classical functions of bile acids include acting as detergents to facilitate the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gut. In addition, bile acids also act as signaling molecules to regulate glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and energy expenditure. The signaling potential of bile acids in compartments such as the systemic circulation is regulated in part by an efficient enterohepatic circulation that functions to conserve and channel the pool of bile acids within the intestinal and hepatobiliary compartments. Changes in hepatobiliary and intestinal bile acid transport can alter the composition, size, and distribution of the bile acid pool. These alterations in turn can have significant effects on bile acid signaling and their downstream metabolic targets. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the inter-relationship between the enterohepatic cycling of bile acids and the metabolic consequences of signaling via bile acid-activated receptors, such as farnesoid X nuclear receptor (FXR) and the G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5).
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ABSTRACT: Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate BA synthesis and transport by the farnesoid X receptor in the liver (FXR-SHP) and intestine (FXR-Fgf15). However, the relative importance of individual BAs in regulating these processes is not known. Therefore, mice were fed various doses of five individual BAs, including cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxoycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA), and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in their diets at various concentrations for one week to increase the concentration of one BA in the enterohepatic circulation. The mRNA of BA synthesis and transporting genes in liver and ileum were quantified. In the liver, the mRNA of SHP, which is the prototypical target gene of FXR, increased in mice fed all concentrations of BAs. In the ileum, the mRNA of the intestinal FXR target gene Fgf15 was increased at lower doses and to a higher extent by CA and DCA than by CDCA and LCA. Cyp7a1, the rate-limiting enzyme in BA synthesis, was decreased more by CA and DCA than CDCA and LCA. Cyp8b1, the enzyme that 12-hydroxylates BAs and is thus responsible for the synthesis of CA, was decreased much more by CA and DCA than CDCA and LCA. Surprisingly, neither a decrease in the conjugated BA uptake transporter (Ntcp) nor increase in BA efflux transporter (Bsep) was observed by FXR activation, but an increase in the cholesterol efflux transporter (Abcg5/Abcg8) was observed with FXR activation. Thus in conclusion, CA and DCA are more potent FXR activators than CDCA and LCA when fed to mice, and thus they are more effective in decreasing the expression of the rate limiting gene in BA synthesis Cyp7a1 and the 12-hydroxylation of BAs Cyp8b1, and are also more effective in increasing the expression of Abcg5/Abcg8, which is responsible for biliary cholesterol excretion. However, feeding BAs do not alter the mRNA or protein levels of Ntcp or Bsep, suggesting that the uptake or efflux of BAs is not regulated by FXR at physiological and pharmacological concentrations of BAs.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2014.12.005 · 3.98 Impact Factor
- Biochemical Pharmacology 08/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor