The built environment, neighborhood crime and constrained physical activity: An exploration of inconsistent findings
ABSTRACT Personal safety is commonly cited in qualitative research as a barrier to local walking, yet the relationship between safety and constrained physical activity has received mixed support in quantitative studies. This paper reviews the quantitative evidence to date, seeking to explain the inconsistencies, and offers recommendations for future research.
A social-ecological framework was adopted to explore the evidence linking crime-related safety, and factors that influence real and perceived safety, with constrained physical activity.
Perceived safety tends to affect the physical activity of groups already known to exhibit greater anxiety about crime; and some elements of the built environment that influence safety appear to constrain physical activity. However the evidence is somewhat inconsistent, and this may be partly attributed to measurement limitations. Many studies employ generic safety measures that make implicit references to crime or use composite variables that lack specificity. Physical activity outcomes also require consideration, as only activities occurring locally outdoors are likely to be affected by neighborhood crime.
Further research is required to tease out associations between real and perceived crime-related safety and physical activity, ideally employing behaviour and crime-specific measures, and addressing the moderating role of the social and built environments.
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ABSTRACT: Crime is both a societal safety and public health issue. Examining different measures and aspects of crime-related safety and their correlations may provide insight into the unclear relationship between crime and children's physical activity. We evaluated five neighborhood crime-related safety measures to determine how they were interrelated. We then explored which crime-related safety measures were associated with children's total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and MVPA in their neighborhoods. Significant positive correlations between observed neighborhood incivilities and parents' perceptions of general crime and disorder were found (r = 0.30, p = 0.0002), as were associations between parents' perceptions of general crime and disorder and perceptions of stranger danger (r = 0.30, p = 0.0002). Parent report of prior crime victimization in their neighborhood was associated with observed neighborhood incivilities (r = 0.22, p = 0.007) and their perceptions of both stranger danger (r = 0.24, p = 0.003) and general crime and disorder (r = 0.37, p < 0.0001). After accounting for covariates, police-reported crime within the census block group in which children lived was associated with less physical activity, both total and in their neighborhood (beta = -0.09, p = 0.005, beta = -0.01, p = 0.02, respectively). Neighborhood-active children living in the lowest crime-quartile neighborhoods based on police reports had 40 min more of total MVPA on average compared to neighborhood-active children living in the highest crime-quartile neighborhoods. Findings suggest that police reports of neighborhood crime may be contributing to lower children's physical activity.Journal of Urban Health 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11524-015-9949-0 · 1.94 Impact Factor
Transportation Research Record Journal of the Transportation Research Board 12/2012; 2323(-1):46-55. DOI:10.3141/2323-06 · 0.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Physical inactivity has been a leading factor of chronic diseases and high rate of mortality in the world. Despite the fact, only a small portion of people are able to meet up the recommended physical activities. However, there are handful studies suggest that built environment may provide stimulus or barriers to people's participation in physical activities. Drawing upon this context, this paper aims to review articles regarding 'built environment and physical activity' focusing on characteristics of built environment which are particularly helpful in improving neighborhood environment, and to catch the attention to physical activities, such as walking, and cycling. It also critically reviews the measures of built environment, and finds three measures viz. (i) perceived environment measures, (ii) observational measures, and (iii) GIS-based measures. The article argues that integrated measures of built environment might be helpful to reduce limitations of individual measures and to understand the reasons of less participation in physical activities. It also suggests some practical interventions for improvement of built environment which is essentially inevitable to persuade physical activities. mvivsk: we ‡k¦ giYe¨vwa I AwaK nv ‡i giYkxjZvi Rb¨vixwiK AKg© GKwU cÖ avb wbqvgK| G m ‡Ë¡ I, Ly e Aí msL¨K gvby l my cvwikK… Z kvixwiK Kg© Kv ‡Ê (e¨vqv ‡g) AskMÖ nY Ki ‡Z cv ‡i| hvB ‡nvK, A ‡bK M ‡elYv my cvwik K ‡i †h, ¯' vwcZ cwi ‡ek gvby ‡li kvixwiK e¨vqv ‡g AskMÖ n ‡Y DÏxcK A_ev evu av cÖ vb Ki ‡Z cv ‡i| GB †cÖ w ¶ ‡Z, eZ© gvb cÖ eÜwU Ô¯' vwcZ cwi ‡ek Ges kvixwiK e¨vqvgÕ m¤úwK© Z M ‡elYvmg~ n ch© v ‡jvPbv K ‡i hv g~ jZt ¯' vwcZ cwi ‡e ‡kîewkó¨mg~ n, ‡h¸jv cª wZ ‡ek Dboe q ‡b mvnvh¨i ; Ges kvixwiK e¨vqvg (†hgb, cv ‡q nvu Uv, wØPµhvb Pvjbv BZ¨vw) Gi cÖ wZ g ‡bv ‡hvMx K ‡i †Zv ‡j| cÖ eÜwU ¯' vwcZ cwi ‡ek m¤úwK© Z mvaviY cwigvcKmg~ n; †hgb (K) cÖ Z¨YK… Z cwi ‡ek cwigvcK, (L) ch© ‡e ¶Yg~ jK cwigvcK, Ges (M) wRAvBGm-wbf© i cwigvcK) ch© v ‡jvPbv K ‡i| ZvQvovI GwU GKwU mgwš^ Z ¯' vwcZ cwi ‡ek cwigvcK KvVv ‡gv Dc¯' vcb K ‡i hv ¯^ Zš¿ cwigvcKmg~ ‡nì~ e© jZv n« vm Ki ‡Z cv ‡i Ges kvixwiK e¨vqv ‡g Kg AskMÖ n ‡Yi KviYmg~ n ey S ‡Z mvnvh¨i| GQvovI cÖ eÜwU ¯' vwcZ cwi ‡ek Dboe q ‡b AviI K ‡qKwU e¨envwiK my cvwik cÖ vb K ‡i, †h¸jv kvixwiK e¨vqv ‡g AskMª nY evov ‡Z mnvqK|