Effect of decabromodiphenyl ether and antimony trioxide on controlled pyrolysis of high-impact polystyrene mixed with polyolefins.
ABSTRACT The controlled pyrolysis of polyethylene/polypropylene/polystyrene mixed with brominated high-impact polystyrene containing decabromodiphenyl ether as a brominated flame-retardant with antimony trioxide as a synergist was performed. The effect of decabromodiphenyl ether and antimony trioxide on the formation of its congeners and their effect on distribution of pyrolysis products were investigated. The controlled pyrolysis significantly affected the decomposition behavior and the formation of products. Analysis with gas chromatograph with electron capture detector confirmed that the bromine content was rich in step 1 (oil 1) liquid products leaving less bromine content in the step 2 (oil 2) liquid products. In the presence of antimony containing samples, the major portion of bromine was observed in the form of antimony bromide and no flame-retardant species were found in oil 1. In the presence of synergist, the step 1 and step 2 oils contain both light and heavy compounds. In the absence of synergist, the heavy compounds in step 1 oil and light compounds in step 2 oils were observed. The presence of antimony bromide was confirmed in the step 1 oils but not in step 2 oils.
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ABSTRACT: Pyrolysis of kitchen based vegetable waste (KVW) was studied in a designed packed bed reactor. The effect of process parameters like temperature, time and catalyst on bio-gas yield and its composition was studied. The total bio-gas yield was found to be maximum with non-catalysed operation (260ml/g) at 1073K (180min). Higher hydrogen (H(2)) yield with non-catalysed operation (32.68%) was observed at 1073K (180min) while with catalysed operation the requisite temperature (873K) and time (120min) reduced with both silica gel (33.34%) and sand (41.82%) thus, saving energy input. Methane (CH(4)) yield was found to be highest (4.44times than non-catalysed and 1.42 with silica gel) in presence of sand (71.485ml/g) at medium temperature (873K) and time (60min). The catalyst operation reduced the carbondioxide (CO(2)) share from 47.29% to 41.30% (silica gel catalysed) and 21.91% (sand catalysed) at 873K.Bioresource Technology 11/2012; 130C:502-509. DOI:10.1016/j.biortech.2012.11.094 · 5.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Waste electrical and electronic equipment waste generated in the European Union (EU27) has been identified as one of the fastest growing waste streams in the EU, such that by 2020 annual arisings of waste electrical and electronic equipment will be 12.3million tonnes. The EU have introduced the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive which aims to promote the re-use, recycling and other forms of recovery of electrical and electronic waste. Printed circuit boards represent a particular category of WEEE that has attracted wide attention for treatment by pyrolysis technology. Printed circuit boards are composed of mainly a glass fibre reinforced polymer resin board onto which are manufactured components containing a wide variety of metals such as copper, iron, tin and lead. But also a range of very high value metals including gold, silver, and palladium. In this paper, the use of pyrolysis to treat waste printed circuit boards as a means to recover valuable materials, including the metals, an oil and gas product from the polymeric resin and glass fibre is reviewed. KeywordsRecycling-Valorization-Printed circuit boards-WEEE-Electrical waste-Pyrolysis03/2010; 1(1):107-120. DOI:10.1007/s12649-009-9003-0
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ABSTRACT: In this study, a novel bi-order model combined with zero- and first-order kinetics was proposed for the decomposition of PMMA (MW = 120,000 g/mol) in concentrated HNO3 by microwave irradiation. To develop and validate this model, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fractional-life method, the gravimetric analysis and Newton's method were utilized. Rate constants, activation energies, the pre-exponential factors and the weight fractions (ϕ) via main-chain scission for the decomposition at 423–453 K were derived from this model. The zero-order reaction was observed dominant at 423–443 K, while the first-order reaction dominated at 453 K and 473 K. The digestion efficiency increased as HNO3 was increased to >3 mL at 423 K–443 K. At 473 K, the digestion was almost 100% when HNO3 volume was >3 mL. The estimated ϕ values increased with HNO3 volume at 423 and 443 K, but varied insignificantly at 453 and 473 K. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009AIChE Journal 08/2009; 55(8):2150 - 2158. DOI:10.1002/aic.11813 · 2.58 Impact Factor