Effect of decabromodiphenyl ether and antimony trioxide on controlled pyrolysis of high-impact polystyrene mixed with polyolefins.
ABSTRACT The controlled pyrolysis of polyethylene/polypropylene/polystyrene mixed with brominated high-impact polystyrene containing decabromodiphenyl ether as a brominated flame-retardant with antimony trioxide as a synergist was performed. The effect of decabromodiphenyl ether and antimony trioxide on the formation of its congeners and their effect on distribution of pyrolysis products were investigated. The controlled pyrolysis significantly affected the decomposition behavior and the formation of products. Analysis with gas chromatograph with electron capture detector confirmed that the bromine content was rich in step 1 (oil 1) liquid products leaving less bromine content in the step 2 (oil 2) liquid products. In the presence of antimony containing samples, the major portion of bromine was observed in the form of antimony bromide and no flame-retardant species were found in oil 1. In the presence of synergist, the step 1 and step 2 oils contain both light and heavy compounds. In the absence of synergist, the heavy compounds in step 1 oil and light compounds in step 2 oils were observed. The presence of antimony bromide was confirmed in the step 1 oils but not in step 2 oils.
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ABSTRACT: The flame retardancy of synthesized melamine polyphosphate (MPP) in combination with starch (ST) and different metallic hydroxides was investigated in low density polyethylene (LDPE) by limiting oxygen index (LOI) and vertical burning test. The results indicated that the LOI value of composite comprising Al(OH)3(ATH) was higher than those of composites at the same additive loading with Mg(OH)2(MH)or Fe(OH)3(FH), which increased from 22 to 27%. And the composite comprising ATH passed V1 rating without causing molten drops. In addition, thermostability and morphology were characterized by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results demonstrated that the crystallization of the composites remained unaffected after the incorporation of metallic hydroxide. The thermal degradation behavior of LDPE composites and the morphology of residual charred layer were changed. It also can be concluded that there was a synergy between certain metallic hydroxide and MPP after analyzing the residual charred layer using X-ray diffraction (XRD). © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2011Journal of Applied Polymer Science 12/2011; 122(5). DOI:10.1002/app.34398 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Malaysian refuse derived fuels (RDF) as valuable fraction of waste recycling were pyrolyzed in continuously stirred batch rig at 450°C in the presence and absence of catalysts. Different types of catalysts were used for upgrading both quantity and quality of pyrolysis products: Y-zeolite, equilibrium FCC, ZSM-5, Ni–Mo-catalyst, Co–Mo-catalyst, silica-alumina and alumina. Gas-chromatography, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and other standardized methods were used for the identification of product. RDF pyrolysis has produced gases with yields of 15.7–27.8%, pyrolytic oils of 9.8–17.8% and water (9.2–12.8%) depending on the types of applied catalyst. Data showed that the volatile fraction (both gas and pyrolytic oils) slightly increased with the catalyst, especially for Y-zeolite and ZSM-5. Gases consisted of CO, CO2, hydrogen and hydrocarbons. Main chemical compounds, such as aromatic, branched and non-branched in pyrolytic oils have been affected by catalysts, e.g. isomerization of main carbon frame and aromatization have been shown increasing in yields especially when Y-zeolite and ZSM-5 were applied. The phenol, benzene 1,3-diol and methyl-phenol content of pyrolytic oil obtained from non-catalytic pyrolysis decreased at 45.0%, 40.9% and 38.0%, respectively in the presence of Y-zeolite and at 39.4%, 36.9% and 26.9% over Co–Mo-catalyst compared to the catalyst free pyrolysis, respectively. Sulphur, nitrogen and chlorine were found as contaminants in pyrolytic oils, but their contaminants concentration could be significantly decreased by the use of catalysts. The activity of catalysts in the decrease of impurity followed the order of Ni–Mo-cat.>Co–Mo-cat.>Y-zeolite>FCC>ZSM-5>Al2O3/SiO2>Al2O3. According to EDXRFS analysis, char consisted of impurities such as Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb elements.Fuel and Energy Abstracts 05/2011; 92(5):925-932. DOI:10.1016/j.fuproc.2010.12.012
Biophysical Journal 02/2011; 100(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bpj.2010.12.1981 · 3.83 Impact Factor