The controlled pyrolysis of polyethylene/polypropylene/polystyrene mixed with brominated high-impact polystyrene containing decabromodiphenyl ether as a brominated flame-retardant with antimony trioxide as a synergist was performed. The effect of decabromodiphenyl ether and antimony trioxide on the formation of its congeners and their effect on distribution of pyrolysis products were investigated. The controlled pyrolysis significantly affected the decomposition behavior and the formation of products. Analysis with gas chromatograph with electron capture detector confirmed that the bromine content was rich in step 1 (oil 1) liquid products leaving less bromine content in the step 2 (oil 2) liquid products. In the presence of antimony containing samples, the major portion of bromine was observed in the form of antimony bromide and no flame-retardant species were found in oil 1. In the presence of synergist, the step 1 and step 2 oils contain both light and heavy compounds. In the absence of synergist, the heavy compounds in step 1 oil and light compounds in step 2 oils were observed. The presence of antimony bromide was confirmed in the step 1 oils but not in step 2 oils.
"These parameters can be regulated by selecting appropriate reactor types and heat transfer modes, such as gas–solid convective heat transfer and solid–solid conductive heat transfer (Saxena et al., 2008). Different types of wastes ranging from agricultural waste such as cotton cocoon shell (Demirbas, 2002), olive husk (Demirbas, 2002), switchgrass (Imam and Capareda , 2012), cassava plantation residue (Pattiya and Suttibak, 2012), corncob (Lu et al., 2011; Demiral et al., 2012), risk husk (Lu et al., 2011) to waste paper (Wu et al., 2003), forest biomass residues (Luik et al., 2007), wood waste (Phan et al., 2008), bark residue (Senoz, 2003), polymers (Singh et al., 2012; Mitan et al., 2008) and solid waste (He et al., 2010) have been used for pyrolysis . A considerable amount of work is done on catalysed pyrolysis of biomass with various types of catalysts, like, ZSM-5 (Bakar and Titiloye, 2012), K 2 CO 3 (Barbooti et al., 2012), commercial NiMo/ Al 2 O 3 catalyst (Qinglan et al., 2010) and dolomite (He et al., 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pyrolysis of kitchen based vegetable waste (KVW) was studied in a designed packed bed reactor. The effect of process parameters like temperature, time and catalyst on bio-gas yield and its composition was studied. The total bio-gas yield was found to be maximum with non-catalysed operation (260ml/g) at 1073K (180min). Higher hydrogen (H(2)) yield with non-catalysed operation (32.68%) was observed at 1073K (180min) while with catalysed operation the requisite temperature (873K) and time (120min) reduced with both silica gel (33.34%) and sand (41.82%) thus, saving energy input. Methane (CH(4)) yield was found to be highest (4.44times than non-catalysed and 1.42 with silica gel) in presence of sand (71.485ml/g) at medium temperature (873K) and time (60min). The catalyst operation reduced the carbondioxide (CO(2)) share from 47.29% to 41.30% (silica gel catalysed) and 21.91% (sand catalysed) at 873K.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Waste electrical and electronic equipment waste generated in the European Union (EU27) has been identified as one of the fastest
growing waste streams in the EU, such that by 2020 annual arisings of waste electrical and electronic equipment will be 12.3million
tonnes. The EU have introduced the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive which aims to promote the re-use,
recycling and other forms of recovery of electrical and electronic waste. Printed circuit boards represent a particular category
of WEEE that has attracted wide attention for treatment by pyrolysis technology. Printed circuit boards are composed of mainly
a glass fibre reinforced polymer resin board onto which are manufactured components containing a wide variety of metals such
as copper, iron, tin and lead. But also a range of very high value metals including gold, silver, and palladium. In this paper,
the use of pyrolysis to treat waste printed circuit boards as a means to recover valuable materials, including the metals,
an oil and gas product from the polymeric resin and glass fibre is reviewed.
KeywordsRecycling-Valorization-Printed circuit boards-WEEE-Electrical waste-Pyrolysis
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