Hepatic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells in a three-dimensional culture system using polyurethane foam.
ABSTRACT Embryonic stem (ES) cells are a type of pluripotent stem cell line isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts and characterized by an almost unlimited self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential in vitro into multiple cell lineages. Therefore the use of ES cells has recently received much attention as a novel cell source for various hybrid artificial organs. To use ES cells, it is necessary to be able to produce functional matured cells from ES cells in large quantities. In this study, we applied polyurethane foam (PUF)/spheroid culture, which enables spontaneous spheroid formation and mass cultivation of cultured cells, to mouse ES cells for hepatic differentiation. Mouse ES cells spontaneously formed spherical multicellular aggregates (spheroids) in the pores of the PUF within 1 d. To induce hepatic differentiation, specific growth factors were added to the culture medium. Mouse ES cells proliferated by day 20, and high cell density (about 1.0 x 10(8) cells/cm(3)-PUF) was achieved. Differentiating ES cells expressed endodermal-specific genes, such as alpha-fetoprotein, albumin and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. The activity of ammonia removal of mouse ES cells per unit volume of the module was detected by day 21 and increased with culture time. Maximum expression levels were comparable to those of primary mouse hepatocytes. Mouse ES cells could express liver-specific functions at high level because of the high cell density culture and hepatic differentiation. These results suggest that the PUF/spheroid culture method could be useful to develop mass differentiation cultures.
Article: Three-dimensional culture of human embryonic stem cell derived hepatic endoderm and its role in bioartificial liver construction.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The liver carries out a range of functions essential for bodily homeostasis. The impairment of liver functions has serious implications and is responsible for high rates of patient morbidity and mortality. Presently, liver transplantation remains the only effective treatment, but donor availability is a major limitation. Therefore, artificial and bioartificial liver devices have been developed to bridge patients to liver transplantation. Existing support devices improve hepatic encephalopathy to a certain extent; however their usage is associated with side effects. The major hindrance in the development of bioartificial liver devices and cellular therapies is the limited availability of human hepatocytes. Moreover, primary hepatocytes are difficult to maintain and lose hepatic identity and function over time even with sophisticated tissue culture media. To overcome this limitation, renewable cell sources are being explored. Human embryonic stem cells are one such cellular resource and have been shown to generate a reliable and reproducible supply of human hepatic endoderm. Therefore, the use of human embryonic stem cell-derived hepatic endoderm in combination with tissue engineering has the potential to pave the way for the development of novel bioartificial liver devices and predictive drug toxicity assays.Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 01/2010; 2010:236147. · 2.44 Impact Factor
Article: Efficient differentiation of embryonic stem cells into hepatic cells in vitro using a feeder-free basement membrane substratum.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The endoderm-inducing effect of the mesoderm-derived supportive cell line M15 on embryonic stem (ES) cells is partly mediated through the extracellular matrix, of which laminin α5 is a crucial component. Mouse ES or induced pluripotent stem cells cultured on a synthesized basement membrane (sBM) substratum, using an HEK293 cell line (rLN10-293 cell) stably expressing laminin-511, could differentiate into definitive endoderm and subsequently into pancreatic lineages. In this study, we investigated the differentiation on sBM of mouse and human ES cells into hepatic lineages. The results indicated that the BM components played an important role in supporting the regional-specific differentiation of ES cells into hepatic endoderm. We show here that knockdown of integrin β1 (Itgb1) in ES cells reduced their differentiation into hepatic lineages and that this is mediated through Akt signaling activation. Moreover, under optimal conditions, human ES cells differentiated to express mature hepatocyte markers and secreted high levels of albumin. This novel procedure for inducing hepatic differentiation will be useful for elucidating the molecular mechanisms controlling lineage-specific fates during gut regionalization. It could also represent an attractive approach to providing a surrogate cell source, not only for regenerative medicine, but also for pharmaceutical and toxicologic studies.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e24228. · 4.09 Impact Factor