Article

Acute norepinephrine reuptake inhibition decreases performance in normal and high ambient temperature

Department of Human Physiology and Sports Medicine, Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
Journal of Applied Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.43). 08/2008; 105(1):206-12. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.90509.2008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Combined inhibition of dopamine (DA)/norepinephrine (NE) reuptake improves exercise performance and increases core temperature in the heat. A recent study demonstrated that this effect may primarily be related to increased DA activity. NE reuptake inhibition (NERI), however, has received little attention in humans, certainly in the heat, where central fatigue appears to be a main factor influencing performance. Therefore the present study examines the effect of NERI (reboxetine) on exercise capacity, thermoregulation, and hormonal response in normal and high temperature. Nine healthy well-trained male cyclists participated in this study. Subjects ingested either placebo (Pla; 2 x 8 mg) or reboxetine (Rebox; 2 x 8 mg). Subjects exercised in temperate (18 degrees C) or warm (30 degrees C) conditions and cycled for 60 min at 55% W(max) immediately followed by a time trial (TT; Pla18/Rebox18; Pla30/Rebox30) to measure exercise performance. Acute NERI decreased power output and consequently exercise performance in temperate (P = 0.018) and warm (P = 0.007) conditions. Resting heart rate was significantly elevated by NERI (18 degrees C: P = 0.02; 30 degrees C: P = 0.018). In Rebox18, heart rate was significantly higher than in the Pla18, while in the heat no effect of the drug treatment was reported during exercise. In Rebox30, all hormone concentrations increased during exercise, except for growth hormone (GH), which was significantly lower during exercise. In Rebox18, prolactin (PRL) concentrations were significantly elevated; GH was significantly higher at rest, but significantly lower during exercise. In conclusion, manipulation of the NE system decreases performance and modifies hormone concentrations, thereby indicating a central NE effect of the drug. These findings confirm results from previous studies that predominantly increased DA activity is important in improving performance.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Bart Roelands, Jun 30, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
171 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: RATIONALE: Pupillometry can be used to characterize autonomic drug effects. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the autonomic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), administered alone and after pretreatment with reboxetine, duloxetine, clonidine, carvedilol, and doxazosin, on pupillary function. METHODS: Infrared pupillometry was performed in five placebo-controlled randomized studies. Each study included 16 healthy subjects (eight men, eight women) who received placebo-MDMA (125 mg), placebo-placebo, pretreatment-placebo, or pretreatment-MDMA using a crossover design. RESULTS: MDMA produced mydriasis, prolonged the latency, reduced the response to light, and shortened the recovery time. The impaired reflex response was associated with subjective, cardiostimulant, and hyperthermic drug effects and returned to normal within 6 h after MDMA administration when plasma MDMA levels were still high. Mydriasis was associated with changes in plasma MDMA concentration over time and longer-lasting. Both reboxetine and duloxetine interacted with the effects of MDMA on pupillary function. Clonidine did not significantly reduce the mydriatic effects of MDMA, although it produced miosis when administered alone. Carvedilol and doxazosin did not alter the effects of MDMA on pupillary function. CONCLUSIONS: The MDMA-induced prolongation of the latency to and reduction of light-induced miosis indicate indirect central parasympathetic inhibition, and the faster recovery time reflects an increased sympathomimetic action. Both norepinephrine and serotonin mediate the effects of MDMA on pupillary function. Although mydriasis is lasting and mirrors the plasma concentration-time curve of MDMA, the impairment in the reaction to light is associated with the subjective and other autonomic effects of MDMA and exhibits acute tolerance.
    Psychopharmacology 06/2012; DOI:10.1007/s00213-012-2761-6 · 3.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    An International Perspective on Topics in Sports Medicine and Sports Injury, 02/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0005-8
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) increases sociability. The prosocial effects of MDMA may result from the release of the "social hormone" oxytocin and associated alterations in the processing of socioemotional stimuli. We investigated the effects of MDMA (125 mg) on the ability to infer the mental states of others from social cues of the eye region in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. The study included 48 healthy volunteers (24 men, 24 women) and used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects design. A choice reaction time test was used to exclude impairments in psychomotor function. We also measured circulating oxytocin and cortisol levels and subjective drug effects. MDMA differentially affected mind reading depending on the emotional valence of the stimuli. MDMA enhanced the accuracy of mental state decoding for positive stimuli (e.g., friendly), impaired mind reading for negative stimuli (e.g., hostile), and had no effect on mind reading for neutral stimuli (e.g., reflective). MDMA did not affect psychomotor performance, increased circulating oxytocin and cortisol levels, and produced subjective prosocial effects, including feelings of being more open, talkative, and closer to others. The shift in the ability to correctly read socioemotional information toward stimuli associated with positive emotional valence, together with the prosocial feelings elicited by MDMA, may enhance social approach behavior and sociability when MDMA is used recreationally and facilitate therapeutic relationships in MDMA-assisted psychotherapeutic settings.
    Psychopharmacology 01/2012; 222(2):293-302. DOI:10.1007/s00213-012-2645-9 · 3.99 Impact Factor