Activation of the Slx5–Slx8 Ubiquitin Ligase by Poly-small Ubiquitin-like Modifier Conjugates
ABSTRACT Protein sumoylation is a regulated process that is important for the health of human and yeast cells. In budding yeast, a subset of sumoylated proteins is targeted for ubiquitination by a conserved heterodimeric ubiquitin (Ub) ligase, Slx5-Slx8, which is needed to suppress the accumulation of high molecular weight small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) conjugates. Structure-function analysis indicates that the Slx5-Slx8 complex contains multiple SUMO-binding domains that are collectively required for in vivo function. To determine the specificity of Slx5-Slx8, we assayed its Ub ligase activity using sumoylated Siz2 as an in vitro substrate. In contrast to unsumoylated or multisumoylated Siz2, substrates containing poly-SUMO conjugates were efficiently ubiquitinated by Slx5-Slx8. Although Siz2 itself was ubiquitinated, the bulk of the Ub was conjugated to SUMO residues. Slx5-Slx8 primarily mono-ubiquitinated the N-terminal SUMO moiety of the chain. These data indicate that the Slx5-Slx8 Ub ligase is stimulated by poly-SUMO conjugates and that it can ubiquitinate a poly-SUMO chain.
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ABSTRACT: The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Uls1 belongs to the Swi2/Snf2 family of DNA-dependent ATPases and a new protein family of SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases. Here we show that Uls1 is implicated in DNA repair independently of the replication stress response pathways mediated by the endonucleases Mus81 and Yen1 and the helicases Mph1 and Srs2. Uls1 works together with Sgs1 and we demonstrate that the attenuation of replication stress-related defects in sgs1Δ by deletion of ULS1 depends on a functional of Rad51 recombinase and post-replication repair pathway mediated by Rad18 and Rad5, but not on the translesion polymerase, Rev3. The higher resistance of sgs1Δ uls1Δ mutants to genotoxic stress compared to single sgs1Δ cells is not the result of decreased formation or accelerated resolution of recombination-dependent DNA structures. Instead, deletion of ULS1 restores stability of the rDNA region in sgs1Δ cells. Our data suggest that Uls1 may contribute to genomic stability during DNA synthesis and channel the repair of replication lesions into the Sgs1-dependent pathway, with DNA translocase and SUMO binding activities of Uls1 as well as a RING domain being essential for its functions in replication stress response.DNA Repair 09/2014; 21:24–35. DOI:10.1016/j.dnarep.2014.05.008 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Slx5/Slx8 heterodimer constitutes a SUMO-targeted Ubiquitin Ligase (STUbL) with an important role in SUMO-targeted degradation and SUMO-dependent signaling. This STUbL relies on SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs) in Slx5 to aid in substrate targeting and carboxy-terminal RING domains in both Slx5 and Slx8 for substrate ubiquitylation. In budding yeast cells, Slx5 resides in the nucleus, forms distinct foci, and can associate with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) breaks. However, it remains unclear how STUbLs interact with other proteins and their substrates. To further examine the targeting and functions of the Slx5/Slx8 STUbL we constructed and analyzed truncations of the Slx5 protein. Our structure-function analysis reveals a domain of Slx5 involved in nuclear localization and in the interaction with Slx5, SUMO, Slx8 and a novel interactor, the SUMO E3 ligase Siz1. We further analyzed the functional interaction of Slx5 and Siz1 in vitro and in vivo. We found that a recombinant Siz1 fragment is an in vitro ubiquitylation target of the Slx5/Slx8 STUbL. Furthermore, slx5 cells accumulate phosphorylated and sumoylated adducts of Siz1 in vivo. Specifically, we show that Siz1 can be ubiquitylated in vivo and is degraded in an Slx5-dependent manner when its nuclear egress is prevented in mitosis. In conclusion, our data provide a first look into the STUbL-mediated regulation of a SUMO E3 ligase.Molecular biology of the cell 11/2013; 25(1). DOI:10.1091/mbc.E13-05-0291 · 5.98 Impact Factor
Article: SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Covalent posttranslational modification with SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) modulates functions of a wide range of proteins in eukaryotic cells. Sumoylation affects the activity, interaction properties, subcellular localization and the stability of its substrate proteins. The recent discovery of a novel class of ubiquitin ligases (E3), termed ULS (E3-S) or StUbL, that recognize sumoylated proteins, links SUMO modification to the ubiquitin/proteasome system. Here we review recent insights into the properties and function of these ligases and their roles in regulating sumoylated proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled:Ubiquitin-Proteasome System.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2013; 1843(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2013.08.022 · 4.66 Impact Factor