Normal fasting plasma glucose and risk of type 2 diabetes diagnosis
ABSTRACT The study compares the risk of incident diabetes associated with fasting plasma glucose levels in the normal range, controlling for other risk factors.
We identified 46,578 members of Kaiser Permanente Northwest who had fasting plasma glucose levels less than 100 mg/dL between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2000, and who did not previously have diabetes or impaired fasting glucose. After assigning subjects to 1 of 4 categories (<85, 85-89, 90-94, or 95-99 mg/dL), we followed them until they developed diabetes, died, or left the health plan, or until April 30, 2007. We used Cox regression analysis to estimate the risk of incident diabetes, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, lipids, smoking, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension.
Subjects developed diabetes at a rate of less than 1% per year during a mean follow-up of 81.0 months. Each milligram per deciliter of fasting plasma glucose increased diabetes risk by 6% (hazard ratio [HR] 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.07, P < .0001) after controlling for other risk factors. Compared with those with fasting plasma glucose levels less than 85 mg/dL, subjects with glucose levels of 95 to 99 mg/dL were 2.33 times more likely to develop diabetes (HR 2.33; 95% CI, 1.95-2.79; P < .0001). Subjects in the 90 to 94 mg/dL group were 49% more likely to progress to diabetes (HR 1.49; 95% CI, 1.23-1.79; P <.0001). All other risk factors except sex were significantly associated with a diabetes diagnosis.
The strong independent association between the level of normal fasting plasma glucose and the incidence of diabetes after controlling for other risk factors suggests that diabetes risk increases as fasting plasma glucose levels increase, even within the currently accepted normal range.
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ABSTRACT: Scant data exists on glucose profile variability in healthy individuals. Twenty-nine healthy subjects without diabetes (86% male; mean age, 38 years) were measured by a CGM system and under real-life conditions. The median percentage of time spent on the blood glucose >7.8 mmol/L for 24 hrs was greater than 10% in both NFG and IFG groups. When subjects were divided into either NFG group (i.e., FPG levels of <5.6 mmol/L; n = 22) or IFG group (FPG levels of 5.6-6.9 mmol/L; n = 7), all CGM indicators investigated but GRADE scores, including glucose variability measures, monitoring excursions, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and 24-hour AUC, did not differ significantly between the two groups. GRADE score and its euglycemia% were significantly different between the two groups. Among various CGM indicators, GRADE score may be a sensitive indicator to discriminate glucose profiles between subjects with NFG and those with IFG.12/2011; 2011:435047. DOI:10.5402/2011/435047
Article: T2DM: Why Epigenetics?[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder influenced by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Epigenetics conveys specific environmental influences into phenotypic traits through a variety of mechanisms that are often installed in early life, then persist in differentiated tissues with the power to modulate the expression of many genes, although undergoing time-dependent alterations. There is still no evidence that epigenetics contributes significantly to the causes or transmission of T2DM from one generation to another, thus, to the current environment-driven epidemics, but it has become so likely, as pointed out in this paper, that one can expect an efflorescence of epigenetic knowledge about T2DM in times to come.Journal of nutrition and metabolism 11/2011; 2011:647514. DOI:10.1155/2011/647514