Cadmium generates reactive oxygen- and carbon-centered radical species in rats: Insights from in vivo spin-trapping studies

Inorganic Carcinogenesis Section, Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine (Impact Factor: 5.74). 09/2008; 45(4):475-81. DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2008.04.041
Source: PubMed


Cadmium (Cd) is a known industrial and environmental pollutant. In the present work, an in vivo spin-trapping technique was used in conjunction with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy to investigate free radical generation in rats following administration of cadmium chloride (CdCl2, 40 micromol/kg) and the spin trapping agent alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone (POBN, 1 g/kg). In Cd-treated rats, POBN radical adducts were formed in the liver, were excreted into the bile, and exhibited an ESR spectrum consistent with a carbon-centered radical species probably derived from endogenous lipids. Isotope substitution of dimethyl sulfoxide [(CH3)2SO] with 13C demonstrated methyl radical formation (POBN/*13CH3). This adduct indicated the production of hydroxyl radical, which reacted with [(13CH3)2SO] to form *13CH3, which then reacted with POBN to form POBN/*13CH3. Depletion of hepatic glutathione by diethyl maleate significantly increased free radical production, whereas inactivation of Kupffer cells by gadolinium chloride and chelation of iron by desferal inhibited it. Treatment with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol, the catalase inhibitor aminobenzotriazole, or the cytochrome P450 inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole had no effect. This is the first study to show Cd generation of reactive oxygen- and carbon-centered radical species by involvement of both iron mediation through iron-catalyzed reactions and activation of Kupffer cells, the resident liver macrophages.

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