Infrapopliteal angioplasty for critical limb ischemia: relation of TransAtlantic InterSociety Consensus class to outcome in 176 limbs.
ABSTRACT Recent data suggest that percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) may be appropriate primary therapy for critical limb ischemia (CLI). However, little data are available regarding infrapopliteal angioplasty outcomes based on TransAtlantic InterSociety Consensus (TASC) classification. We report our experience with infrapopliteal angioplasty stratified by TASC lesion classification.
From February 2004 to March 2007, 176 consecutive limbs (163 patients) underwent infrapopliteal angioplasty for CLI. Stents were placed for lesions refractory to PTA or flow-limiting dissections. Patients were stratified by TASC classification and suitability for bypass grafting. Primary outcome was freedom from restenosis, reintervention, or amputation. Primary patency, freedom from secondary restenosis, limb salvage, reintervention by repeat angioplasty or bypass, and survival were determined.
Median age was 73 years (range, 39-94 years). Technical success was 93%. Average follow-up was 10 months (range, 1-41 months). At 1 and 2 years, freedom from restenosis, reintervention, or amputation was 39% and 35%, conventional primary patency was 53% and 51%, and freedom from secondary restenosis and reintervention were 63% and 61%, respectively. Limb salvage was 84% at 1, 2, and 3 years. Within 2 years, 15% underwent bypass and 18% underwent repeat infrapopliteal PTA. Postoperative complications occurred in 9% and intraprocedural complications in 10%. The 30-day mortality was 5% (9 of 181). Overall survival was 81%, 65%, and 54% at 1, 2, and 3 years. TASC D classification predicted diminished technical success (75% D vs 100% A, B, and C; P < .001), primary restenosis, reintervention, or amputation (hazard ratio [HR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-5.5, P < .001), primary patency (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.9, P < .004), secondary restenosis (HR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.6-6.4, P = .001), and limb salvage (HR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1-6.3, P < .05). Unsuitability for surgical bypass also predicted restenosis, reintervention, or amputation, secondary restenosis, need for repeated angioplasty, and inferior primary patency and limb salvage rates.
Infrapopliteal angioplasty is a reasonable primary treatment for CLI patients with TASC A, B, or C lesions. Restenosis, reintervention, or amputation was higher in patients who were unsuitable candidates for bypass; however, an attempt at PTA may be indicated as an alternative to primary amputation. Although restenosis, reintervention, or amputation is high after tibial angioplasty for CLI, excellent limb salvage rates may be obtained with careful follow-up and reinterventions when necessary, including bypass in 15%.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Endovascular therapies are increasingly used for treatment of critical limb ischemia (CLI). Infrapopliteal (IP) occlusions are common in CLI, and successful limb salvage may require restoration of arterial flow in the distribution of a chronically occluded vessel. We sought to describe the procedural characteristics and outcomes of patients with IP occlusions who underwent endovascular intervention for treatment of CLI. All patients with IP interventions for treatment of CLI from 2006 to 2012 were included. Angiographic and procedural data were compared between patients who underwent intervention for IP occlusions vs IP stenosis. Restenosis was determined by Doppler ultrasound imaging. Limb salvage was the primary end point of the study. Additional end points included primary patency, primary assisted patency, secondary patency, occlusion crossing success, procedural success, and amputation-free survival. A total of 187 patients with CLI underwent interventions for 356 IP lesions, and 77 patients (41%) had interventions for an IP occlusion. Patients with an intervention for IP occlusion were more likely to have zero to one vessel runoff (83% vs 56%; P < .001) compared with interventions for stenosis. Compared with IP stenoses, IP occlusions were longer (118 ± 86 vs 73 ± 67 mm; P < .001) and had a smaller vessel diameter (2.5 ± 0.8 vs 2.7 ± 0.5 mm; P = .02). Wire crossing was achieved in 83% of IP occlusions, and the overall procedural success for IP occlusions was 79%. The overall 1-year limb salvage rate was 84%. Limb salvage was highest in the stenosis group, slightly lower in the successful occlusion group, and lowest in the failed occlusion group (92% vs 75% vs 58%, respectively; P = .02). Unsuccessfully treated IP occlusions were associated with a significantly higher likelihood of major amputation (hazard ratio, 5.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.89-17.7) and major amputation or death (hazard ratio, 2.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-6.63). Successful endovascular recanalization of IP occlusions can be achieved with guidewire and support catheter techniques in most patients. In patients selected for an endovascular-first approach for IP occlusions in CLI, this strategy can be successfully implemented with favorable rates of limb salvage.Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 01/2014; · 3.52 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: to evaluate the impact of the initial result of percutaneous angioplasty (PA), objectively assessed with duplex-ultrasound, in the three-years clinical outcome. thirty-nine patients with atherosclerotic disease successfully treated by PA were included (40 limbs). All patients had critical ischemia with rest pain and ischemic ulcers due to infrainguinal obstructions alone. The patients were submitted to duplex-ultrasound examination on the day before and on the first or second day after the procedure. Peak systolic velocities (PSV) was recorded in the anterior tibial, posterior tibial and fibular arteries at the level of distal third of the leg. All patients were followed for 3 years. Comparison between good and bad groups were based on perioperative VPS gradient (GPSV) of the mean of the VPS in the 3 arteries. After 3-years good result were defined as good when the patient had no pain and complete healing of a previous ulcer or minor amputations. Mean age was 68,5 ± 8,1 years-old with no difference in demographic characteristics (p>0,05). In 26 cases the long-term result was good. Healing time ranged from 4 to 130 weeks (median 26.5). Bad long-term results were observed in 12 cases. Two lesions had persisted unhealed despite patent angioplasty. In 10 cases a second procedure was carried out (redo angioplasty in 6 and bypass in 4). TASCII A/B registered better clinical success then TASCII C/D (p<0,05) at 1-year follow-up but not at 3-years (p=0,36). Two-year limb salvage was 92,5% ± 4,2%. Primary patency was 52,5% ± 9,5% in 3-years. GVPS was 21,9 cm/s in good group and 24,7cm/s in bad group (p>0,05). The quality of the initial result, as measured by GPSV, was not associated with a good or bad long-term success (p>0,05). once the procedure was successfully performed, the degree of increase in flow is not related to the long-term durability and ulcer healing. Descriptors: Angioplasty; Lower extremity; Ultrasonography Doppler; Surveillance; Postoperative period; Atherosclerosis; Leg ulcer; Wound healing.Annals of Vascular Surgery 12/2013; · 0.99 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background/Purpose Midterm outcomes of endovascular intervention (EVI) for critical limb ischemia (CLI) have not been previously reported in Taiwan. This study assessed the safety, feasibility, and patient-oriented outcomes for CLI patients after EVI. Methods From June 2005 to December 2011, 270 patients underwent EVI for CLI of 333 limbs. Primary patency (PP), assisted primary patency (AP), limb salvage, sustained clinical success (SCS), secondary SCS (SSCS), and survival were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results The procedural success rate was 89%, and the periprocedural mortality and major complication rates within 30 days were 0.6% and 6.9%, respectively. During the mean follow-up time of 27 ± 20 months (1–77), 64 patients died and 25 legs required major amputation. Eighty-one percent of the patients with tissue loss had wound healing at 6 months and 75% of the patients were ambulatory, with or without assisting devices, at 1 year. The overall survival and limb salvage rates at 3 years were 70% and 90%, respectively. The PP and AP at 1 and 3 years were 58% and 37% and 79% and 61%, respectively. The SCS and SSCS were 65% and 46% and 80% and 64% at 1 and 3 years, respectively. Conclusion In Taiwan, EVI was a safe and feasible procedure for CLI patients, with a high procedural success rate and lower complication rate. Sustained limb salvage and clinical success can be afforded with an active surveillance program and prompt intervention during midterm follow-up.Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. 10/2014; 113(10):688–695.