Infrapopliteal angioplasty for critical limb ischemia: relation of TransAtlantic InterSociety Consensus class to outcome in 176 limbs.
ABSTRACT Recent data suggest that percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) may be appropriate primary therapy for critical limb ischemia (CLI). However, little data are available regarding infrapopliteal angioplasty outcomes based on TransAtlantic InterSociety Consensus (TASC) classification. We report our experience with infrapopliteal angioplasty stratified by TASC lesion classification.
From February 2004 to March 2007, 176 consecutive limbs (163 patients) underwent infrapopliteal angioplasty for CLI. Stents were placed for lesions refractory to PTA or flow-limiting dissections. Patients were stratified by TASC classification and suitability for bypass grafting. Primary outcome was freedom from restenosis, reintervention, or amputation. Primary patency, freedom from secondary restenosis, limb salvage, reintervention by repeat angioplasty or bypass, and survival were determined.
Median age was 73 years (range, 39-94 years). Technical success was 93%. Average follow-up was 10 months (range, 1-41 months). At 1 and 2 years, freedom from restenosis, reintervention, or amputation was 39% and 35%, conventional primary patency was 53% and 51%, and freedom from secondary restenosis and reintervention were 63% and 61%, respectively. Limb salvage was 84% at 1, 2, and 3 years. Within 2 years, 15% underwent bypass and 18% underwent repeat infrapopliteal PTA. Postoperative complications occurred in 9% and intraprocedural complications in 10%. The 30-day mortality was 5% (9 of 181). Overall survival was 81%, 65%, and 54% at 1, 2, and 3 years. TASC D classification predicted diminished technical success (75% D vs 100% A, B, and C; P < .001), primary restenosis, reintervention, or amputation (hazard ratio [HR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-5.5, P < .001), primary patency (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.9, P < .004), secondary restenosis (HR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.6-6.4, P = .001), and limb salvage (HR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1-6.3, P < .05). Unsuitability for surgical bypass also predicted restenosis, reintervention, or amputation, secondary restenosis, need for repeated angioplasty, and inferior primary patency and limb salvage rates.
Infrapopliteal angioplasty is a reasonable primary treatment for CLI patients with TASC A, B, or C lesions. Restenosis, reintervention, or amputation was higher in patients who were unsuitable candidates for bypass; however, an attempt at PTA may be indicated as an alternative to primary amputation. Although restenosis, reintervention, or amputation is high after tibial angioplasty for CLI, excellent limb salvage rates may be obtained with careful follow-up and reinterventions when necessary, including bypass in 15%.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility, technical effectiveness and limb salvage potential of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), particularly infrapopliteal, in diabetic subjects with ischaemic foot ulcer. Intervention study with PTA in consecutive series. Six Diabetology Foot Centres and one Cardiovascular Catheterization Laboratory in Italy. Two hundred and twenty-one consecutive diabetic subjects hospitalized for ischaemic foot ulcer. Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) was investigated by means of foot pulses assessment, ankle-brachial-index (ABI), transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcPO2) and duplex scanning. If non-invasive parameters suggested PAOD, angiography was performed and a PTA was carried out during the same session. PTA feasibility, improvement of ABI and TcPO2, limb salvage rate, clinical recurrence. On angiography, two patients had stenoses which were <50% of the vessel diameter. PTA was performed in 191 (85.3%) of the 219 subjects with stenoses >50%, even when longer than 10 cm and/or multiple/calcified. In 11 patients (5.8%) PTA was performed in the proximal axis exclusively, in 81 (42.4%) patients in the infrapopliteal axis exclusively and in 99 (51.8%) in both the femoropopliteal and infrapopliteal axis. Both ABI and TcPO2 improved significantly after PTA (P < 0.0001). Clinical recurrence occurred in 14 subjects: 10 of whom underwent a second successful PTA. Of the 191 patients who underwent PTA, 10 (5.2%) underwent an above-the-ankle amputation. PTA, including infrapopliteal, is feasible in most diabetic subjects with ischaemic foot ulcer and is effective for foot revascularization. Clinical recurrence was infrequent and the procedure could successfully be repeated in most cases. In subjects treated successfully with PTA the above-the-ankle amputation rate was low. PTA should be considered as the revascularization treatment of first choice in all diabetic subjects with foot ulcer and PAOD.Journal of Internal Medicine 09/2002; 252(3):225-32. · 6.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This retrospective study compared the results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with those of infrainguinal bypass procedures in patients with critical arterial ischemia to determine which procedure had superior patency, limb salvage, and durability. The records of 54 patients who underwent 54 PTAs and 56 patients who underwent 63 infrainguinal bypasses (29 femoropopliteal and 34 femorodistal) from 1981 to 1987 were reviewed. In each patient PTA or bypass was the initial vascular procedure. Patients in both groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, and the presence of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking. Mean follow-up was 40 months (4 to 88 months) for the PTA group and 28 months (6 to 78 months) for the surgery group. Thirty-nine of the 54 patients (72%) were initially improved after PTA, whereas 15 patients (28%) showed no improvement. During follow-up, 20 initially successful PTAs reoccluded. Thirty-two of 54 patients (59%) underwent subsequent procedures, which included repeat PTA (10) and distal bypass (14). Patency determined by noninvasive Doppler studies was 18% at 2 years. Limb salvage, which included such secondary procedures, was 78%. Two-year patency for femoropopliteal bypasses was 68% with a limb salvage of 90%. Femorodistal bypasses had a 2-year patency of 47% and a limb salvage of 74%. No perioperative deaths occurred. Twenty-one of the 63 patients (33%) had subsequent procedures, which included thrombectomy (5) and bypass revision (9). In patients treated for limb-threatening ischemia the 2-year patency after femoropopliteal bypass (68%) or femorodistal bypass (47%) is significantly better than that from PTA (18%, p less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Journal of Vascular Surgery 06/1989; 9(5):698-703. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to review our experience over the last decade with the dorsalis pedis bypass for ischemic limb salvage in patients with diabetes mellitus. The study was a retrospective analysis of a computerized vascular registry and chart review. From January 10, 1990 to January 11, 2000, 1032 bypasses to the dorsalis pedis artery were performed in 865 patients (27.6% of the 3731 lower extremity arterial bypass procedures performed in that time period). Five hundred ninety-seven patients (69%) were male, with a mean age of 66.8 years. Ninety-two percent had diabetes mellitus. All procedures were done for limb salvage. Conduits included 317 nonreversed saphenous vein (30.7%), 273 in situ (26.4%), 235 reversed vein (22.8%), 170 arm vein (16.5%), 35 other vein (3.4%), and two polytetrafluoroethylene (0.2%) grafts. The inflow arteries were as follows: 294 common femoral (28.5%), 550 popliteal (53.2%), 114 superficial femoral (11%), and 74 other (7.2%). The mortality rate within 1 month of surgery was 0.9%, and 42 grafts (4.2%) failed in the same interval, although 13 were successfully revised. In a follow-up period that ranged from 1 to 120 months (mean, 23.6 months), primary patency, secondary patency, limb salvage, and patient survival rates were 56.8%, 62.7%, 78.2%, and 48.6%, respectively at 5 years and 37.7%, 41.7%, 57.7%, and 23.8% at 10 years. Both polytetrafluoroethylene grafts failed in less than 1 year. Primary graft patency was worse in female patients (46.5% female versus 61.6% male at 5 years; P <.009) but better in patients with diabetes (65.9% diabetes mellitus versus 56.3% non-diabetes mellitus at 4 years; P <.04). Saphenous vein grafts performed better than all other conduits with a secondary patency rate of 67.6% versus 46.3% at 5 years (P <.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that length of stay greater than 10 days and dorsalis pedis bypass for the surgical indication of previous graft occlusion were independently predictive of worse graft patency at 1 year and use of saphenous vein as conduit was predictive of better patency. Dorsalis pedis bypass is durable with a high likelihood of ischemic foot salvage over many years. Saphenous vein is the preferred conduit when available. Short vein grafts from distal inflow sites are possible in more than 50% of cases. These results justify the routine use of pedal arterial reconstruction for patients with diabetes with ischemic foot complications.Journal of Vascular Surgery 03/2003; 37(2):307-15. · 2.88 Impact Factor