Infrapopliteal angioplasty for critical limb ischemia: Relation of TransAtlantic InterSociety Consensus class to outcome in 176 limbs
ABSTRACT Recent data suggest that percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) may be appropriate primary therapy for critical limb ischemia (CLI). However, little data are available regarding infrapopliteal angioplasty outcomes based on TransAtlantic InterSociety Consensus (TASC) classification. We report our experience with infrapopliteal angioplasty stratified by TASC lesion classification.
From February 2004 to March 2007, 176 consecutive limbs (163 patients) underwent infrapopliteal angioplasty for CLI. Stents were placed for lesions refractory to PTA or flow-limiting dissections. Patients were stratified by TASC classification and suitability for bypass grafting. Primary outcome was freedom from restenosis, reintervention, or amputation. Primary patency, freedom from secondary restenosis, limb salvage, reintervention by repeat angioplasty or bypass, and survival were determined.
Median age was 73 years (range, 39-94 years). Technical success was 93%. Average follow-up was 10 months (range, 1-41 months). At 1 and 2 years, freedom from restenosis, reintervention, or amputation was 39% and 35%, conventional primary patency was 53% and 51%, and freedom from secondary restenosis and reintervention were 63% and 61%, respectively. Limb salvage was 84% at 1, 2, and 3 years. Within 2 years, 15% underwent bypass and 18% underwent repeat infrapopliteal PTA. Postoperative complications occurred in 9% and intraprocedural complications in 10%. The 30-day mortality was 5% (9 of 181). Overall survival was 81%, 65%, and 54% at 1, 2, and 3 years. TASC D classification predicted diminished technical success (75% D vs 100% A, B, and C; P < .001), primary restenosis, reintervention, or amputation (hazard ratio [HR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-5.5, P < .001), primary patency (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.9, P < .004), secondary restenosis (HR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.6-6.4, P = .001), and limb salvage (HR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1-6.3, P < .05). Unsuitability for surgical bypass also predicted restenosis, reintervention, or amputation, secondary restenosis, need for repeated angioplasty, and inferior primary patency and limb salvage rates.
Infrapopliteal angioplasty is a reasonable primary treatment for CLI patients with TASC A, B, or C lesions. Restenosis, reintervention, or amputation was higher in patients who were unsuitable candidates for bypass; however, an attempt at PTA may be indicated as an alternative to primary amputation. Although restenosis, reintervention, or amputation is high after tibial angioplasty for CLI, excellent limb salvage rates may be obtained with careful follow-up and reinterventions when necessary, including bypass in 15%.
Journal of Endovascular Therapy 12/2014; 21(6):779-82. DOI:10.1583/14-4801C.1 · 3.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background/Purpose Midterm outcomes of endovascular intervention (EVI) for critical limb ischemia (CLI) have not been previously reported in Taiwan. This study assessed the safety, feasibility, and patient-oriented outcomes for CLI patients after EVI. Methods From June 2005 to December 2011, 270 patients underwent EVI for CLI of 333 limbs. Primary patency (PP), assisted primary patency (AP), limb salvage, sustained clinical success (SCS), secondary SCS (SSCS), and survival were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results The procedural success rate was 89%, and the periprocedural mortality and major complication rates within 30 days were 0.6% and 6.9%, respectively. During the mean follow-up time of 27 ± 20 months (1–77), 64 patients died and 25 legs required major amputation. Eighty-one percent of the patients with tissue loss had wound healing at 6 months and 75% of the patients were ambulatory, with or without assisting devices, at 1 year. The overall survival and limb salvage rates at 3 years were 70% and 90%, respectively. The PP and AP at 1 and 3 years were 58% and 37% and 79% and 61%, respectively. The SCS and SSCS were 65% and 46% and 80% and 64% at 1 and 3 years, respectively. Conclusion In Taiwan, EVI was a safe and feasible procedure for CLI patients, with a high procedural success rate and lower complication rate. Sustained limb salvage and clinical success can be afforded with an active surveillance program and prompt intervention during midterm follow-up.Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 10/2014; 113(10):688–695. DOI:10.1016/j.jfma.2012.10.022 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Peripheral arterial occlusive disease is becoming a major health problem in Western societies as the population continues to age. In addition to risk of limb loss, the complexity of the disease is magnified by its intimate association with medical comorbidity, especially cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Risk factor modification and antiplatelet therapy are essential to improve long-term survival. Surgical intervention is indicated for intermittent claudication when a patient's quality of life remains unacceptable after a trial of conservative therapy. Open reconstruction and endovascular revascularization are cornerstone for limb salvage in patients with critical limb ischemia. Recent advances in catheter-based technology have made endovascular intervention the preferred treatment approach for infrainguinal disease in many cases. Nevertheless, lower extremity bypass remains an important treatment strategy, especially for reasonable risk patients with a suitable bypass conduit. In this review, we present a summary of current knowledge about peripheral arterial disease followed by a review of current, evidence-based medical and surgical therapy for infrainguinal arterial occlusive disease.Vascular Health and Risk Management 01/2014; 10:599-608. DOI:10.2147/VHRM.S50779