Infrapopliteal angioplasty for critical limb ischemia: Relation of TransAtlantic InterSociety Consensus class to outcome in 176 limbs

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
Journal of Vascular Surgery (Impact Factor: 3.02). 07/2008; 48(1):128-36. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvs.2008.02.027
Source: PubMed


Recent data suggest that percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) may be appropriate primary therapy for critical limb ischemia (CLI). However, little data are available regarding infrapopliteal angioplasty outcomes based on TransAtlantic InterSociety Consensus (TASC) classification. We report our experience with infrapopliteal angioplasty stratified by TASC lesion classification.
From February 2004 to March 2007, 176 consecutive limbs (163 patients) underwent infrapopliteal angioplasty for CLI. Stents were placed for lesions refractory to PTA or flow-limiting dissections. Patients were stratified by TASC classification and suitability for bypass grafting. Primary outcome was freedom from restenosis, reintervention, or amputation. Primary patency, freedom from secondary restenosis, limb salvage, reintervention by repeat angioplasty or bypass, and survival were determined.
Median age was 73 years (range, 39-94 years). Technical success was 93%. Average follow-up was 10 months (range, 1-41 months). At 1 and 2 years, freedom from restenosis, reintervention, or amputation was 39% and 35%, conventional primary patency was 53% and 51%, and freedom from secondary restenosis and reintervention were 63% and 61%, respectively. Limb salvage was 84% at 1, 2, and 3 years. Within 2 years, 15% underwent bypass and 18% underwent repeat infrapopliteal PTA. Postoperative complications occurred in 9% and intraprocedural complications in 10%. The 30-day mortality was 5% (9 of 181). Overall survival was 81%, 65%, and 54% at 1, 2, and 3 years. TASC D classification predicted diminished technical success (75% D vs 100% A, B, and C; P < .001), primary restenosis, reintervention, or amputation (hazard ratio [HR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-5.5, P < .001), primary patency (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.9, P < .004), secondary restenosis (HR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.6-6.4, P = .001), and limb salvage (HR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1-6.3, P < .05). Unsuitability for surgical bypass also predicted restenosis, reintervention, or amputation, secondary restenosis, need for repeated angioplasty, and inferior primary patency and limb salvage rates.
Infrapopliteal angioplasty is a reasonable primary treatment for CLI patients with TASC A, B, or C lesions. Restenosis, reintervention, or amputation was higher in patients who were unsuitable candidates for bypass; however, an attempt at PTA may be indicated as an alternative to primary amputation. Although restenosis, reintervention, or amputation is high after tibial angioplasty for CLI, excellent limb salvage rates may be obtained with careful follow-up and reinterventions when necessary, including bypass in 15%.

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    • "This study is a large single-center experience of the effectiveness of endovascular treatment CLI. The mean follow-up of 21 months is comparable to other recent single-center reports (6-9). "
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the impact on wound healing and long-term clinical outcomes of endovascular revascularization in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). This is a retrospective study on 189 limbs with CLI treated with endovascular revascularization between 2008 and 2010 and followed for a mean 21 months. Angiographic outcome was graded to technical success (TS), partial failure (PF) and complete technical failure. The impact on wound healing of revascularization was assessed with univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models. Analysis of long-term event-free limb survival, and limb salvage rate (LSR) was performed by Kaplan-Meier method. TS was achieved in 89% of treated limbs, whereas PF and CF were achieved in 9% and 2% of the limbs, respectively. Major complications occurred in 6% of treated limbs. The 30-day mortality was 2%. Wound healing was successful in 85% and failed in 15%. Impact of angiographic outcome on wound healing was statistically significant. The event-free limb survival was 79.3% and 69.5% at 1- and 3-years, respectively. The LSR was 94.8% and 92.0% at 1- and 3-years, respectively. Endovascular revascularization improve wound healing rate and provide good long-term LSRs in CLI.
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    • "There was also a 25% major amputation rate in that time period. Another review of 176 cases was published in the Journal of Vascular Surgery in 2008 (23). At 1 year, there was a 46% primary patency and 84% limb salvage rate. "
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    Diabetic Foot and Ankle 10/2012; 3. DOI:10.3402/dfa.v3i0.18977
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    • "Recently, several studies have reported on the efficacy of infra-popliteal interventions for the treatment of CLI.15-17 However, limited data on the efficacy of tibial artery endovascular intervention (TAEI) in the treatment of CLI, specifically with regard to limb salvage and wound healing, have resulted in recommendations for infra-popliteal disease being rather ambiguous.18,19 "
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a significant major risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and critical limb ischaemia (CLI), the latter which is also the most common cause of amputation in these patients. Revascularisation of the lower extremities of such patients is imperative for limb salvage and has become first-line therapy. However, the incidence of restenosis following endovascular stenting is very high and is largely due to neo-intimal hyperplasia (NIH), the regulation of which is for the greater part not understood. This article therefore reviews our understanding on the regulation of NIH following stent-induced vascular injury, and highlights the importance of future studies to investigate whether the profile of vascular progenitor cell differentiation, neo-intimal growth factors and lumen diameters predict the severity of post-stent NIH in the peripheral arteries. Results from future studies will (1) better our understanding of the regulation of NIH in general, (2) determine whether combinations of any of the vascular factors discussed are predictive of the extent of NIH postoperatively, and (3) potentially facilitate future therapeutic targets and/or change preventive strategies.
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