Article

Rufinamide: clinical pharmacokinetics and concentration-response relationships in patients with epilepsy.

Institute of Neurology IRCCS C. Mondino Foundation and Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
Epilepsia (Impact Factor: 4.58). 07/2008; 49(7):1123-41. DOI: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2008.01665.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Rufinamide is a new, orally active antiepileptic drug (AED), which has been found to be effective in the treatment of partial seizures and drop attacks associated with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. When taken with food, rufinamide is relatively well absorbed in the lower dose range, with approximately dose-proportional plasma concentrations up to 1,600 mg/day, but less than dose-proportional plasma concentrations at higher doses due to reduced oral bioavailability. Rufinamide is not extensively bound to plasma proteins. During repeated dosing, steady state is reached within 2 days, consistent with its elimination half-life of 6-10 h. The apparent volume of distribution (V(d)/F) and apparent oral clearance (CL/F) are related to body size, the best predictor being body surface area. Rufinamide is not a substrate of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes and is extensively metabolized via hydrolysis by carboxylesterases to a pharmacologically inactive carboxylic acid derivative, which is excreted in the urine. Rufinamide pharmacokinetics are not affected by impaired renal function. Potential differences in rufinamide pharmacokinetics between children and adults have not been investigated systematically in formal studies. Although population pharmacokinetic modeling suggests that in the absence of interacting comedication rufinamide CL/F may be higher in children than in adults, a meaningful comparison of data across age groups is complicated by age-related differences in doses and in proportion of patients receiving drugs known to increase or to decrease rufinamide CL/F. A study investigating the effect of rufinamide on the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A4 substrate triazolam and an oral contraceptive interaction study showed that rufinamide has some enzyme-inducing potential in man. Findings from population pharmacokinetic modeling indicate that rufinamide does not modify the CL/F of topiramate or valproic acid, but may slightly increase the CL/F of carbamazepine and lamotrigine and slightly decrease the CL/F of phenobarbital and phenytoin (all predicted changes were <20%). These changes in the pharmacokinetics of associated AEDs are unlikely to make it necessary to change the dosages of these AEDs given concomitantly with rufinamide, with the exception that consideration should be given to reducing the dose of phenytoin. Based on population pharmacokinetic modeling, lamotrigine, topiramate, or benzodiazepines do not affect the pharmacokinetics of rufinamide, but valproic acid may increase plasma rufinamide concentrations, especially in children in whom plasma rufinamide concentrations could be increased substantially. Conversely, comedication with carbamazepine, vigabatrin, phenytoin, phenobarbital, and primidone was associated with a slight-to-moderate decrease in plasma rufinamide concentrations, ranging from a minimum of -13.7% in female children comedicated with vigabatrin to a maximum of -46.3% in female adults comedicated with phenytoin, phenobarbital, or primidone. In population modeling using data from placebo-controlled trials, a positive correlation has been identified between reduction in seizure frequency and steady-state plasma rufinamide concentrations. The probability of adverse effects also appears to be concentration-related.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
118 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the past twenty-one years, 17 new antiepileptic drugs have been approved for use in the United States and/or Europe. These drugs are clobazam, ezogabine (retigabine), eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, perampanel, pregabalin, rufinamide, stiripentol, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin and zonisamide. Therapeutic drug monitoring is often used in the clinical dosing of the newer anti-epileptic drugs. The drugs with the best justifications for drug monitoring are lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, stiripentol, and zonisamide. Perampanel, stiripentol and tiagabine are strongly bound to serum proteins and are candidates for monitoring of the free drug fractions. Alternative specimens for therapeutic drug monitoring are saliva and dried blood spots. Therapeutic drug monitoring of the new antiepileptic drugs is discussed here for managing patients with epilepsy.
    Clinica Chimica Acta 06/2014; 436. · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rufinamide is a third-generation antiepileptic drug, approved recently as an orphan drug for the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Although extensive research was conducted, its pharmacokinetics in rats was not described. This work addresses that area by describing in a rapid pharmacokinetic study the main pharmacokinetic properties of rufinamide at three different doses of 1 mg/kg body weight (bw), 5 mg/kg bw, and 20 mg/kg bw. Furthermore, total brain concentrations of the drug were determined in order to characterize its brain-to-plasma partition coefficient. Adult Wistar male rats, weighing 200-450 g, were administered rufinamide by intravenous and oral routes. Rufinamide concentrations from plasma samples and brain tissue homogenate were determined using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The mean half-life was between 7 and 13 hours, depending on route of administration - intravenously administered drug was eliminated faster than orally administered drug. Mean (S.E.M.) total plasma clearance was 84.01 ± 3.80 ml/h/kg for intravenous administration, while the apparent plasma clearance for oral administration was 95.52 ± 39.45 ml/h/kg. The mean (S.E.M.) maximum plasma concentration reached after oral administration of 1 mg/kg bw and 5 mg/kg bw was 0.89 ± 0.09 μg/ml and 3.188 ± 0.71 μg/ml, respectively. The median (range) time to reach maximum plasma concentration (tmax) was 4 (2-8) hours. Mean (S.E.M.) brain-to-plasma concentration ratio of rufinamide was 0.514 ± 0.036, consistent with the brain-to-plasma ratio calculated from the area under curves (AUC0-t) of 0.441 ± 0.047. No influence of dose, route of administration, or post-dosing time was observed on brain-to-plasma ratio. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 12/2014; 68. · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interactions between antiepileptic drugs, or between antiepileptic drugs and other drugs, can be pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic in nature. Pharmacokinetic interactions involve changes in absorption, distribution or elimination, whereas pharmacodynamic interactions involve synergism and antagonism at the site of action. Most clinically important interactions of antiepileptic drugs result from induction or inhibition of drug metabolism. Carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and primidone are strong inducers of cytochrome P450 and glucuronizing enzymes (as well as P-glycoprotein) and can reduce the efficacy of co-administered medications such as oral anticoagulants, calcium antagonists, steroids, antimicrobial and antineoplastic drugs through this mechanism. Oxcarbazepine, eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, rufinamide, topiramate (at doses ≥200 mg/day) and perampanel (at doses ≥8 mg/day) have weaker inducing properties, and a lower propensity to cause interactions mediated by enzyme induction. Unlike enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition results in decreased metabolic clearance of the affected drug, the serum concentration of which may increase leading to toxic effects. Examples of important interactions mediated by enzyme inhibition include the increase in the serum concentration of phenobarbital and lamotrigine caused by valproic acid. There are also interactions whereby other drugs induce or inhibit the metabolism of antiepileptic drugs, examples being the increase in serum carbamazepine concentration by erythromycin, and the decrease in serum lamotrigine concentration by oestrogen-containing contraceptives. Pharmacodynamic interactions between antiepileptic drugs may also be clinically important. These interactions can have potentially beneficial effects, such as the therapeutic synergism of valproic acid combined with lamotrigine, or adverse effects, such as the reciprocal potentiation of neurotoxicity observed in patients treated with a combination of sodium channel blocking antiepileptic drugs.
    Epileptic disorders: international epilepsy journal with videotape 12/2014; · 0.90 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
2 Downloads
Available from