To present a new 4D method that is designed to provide high spatial resolution MR angiograms at subsecond temporal resolution by combining different techniques of view sharing with parallel imaging at 3.0T.
In the keyhole-based method, a central elliptical cylinder in k-space is repeated n times (keyhole) with a random acquisition (CENTRA), and followed by the readout of the periphery of k-space. 4D-MR angiography with CENTRA keyhole (4D-TRAK) was combined with parallel imaging (SENSE) and partial Fourier imaging. In total, a speed-up factor of 66.5 (6.25 [CENTRA keyhole] x 8 [SENSE] x 1.33 [partial Fourier imaging]) was achieved yielding a temporal resolution of 608 ms and a spatial resolution of (1.1 x 1.4 x 1.1) mm(3) with whole-brain coverage 4D-TRAK was applied to five patients and compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA).
4D-TRAK was successfully completed with an acceleration factor of 66.5 in all five patients. Sharp images were acquired without any artifacts possibly created by the transition of the central cylinder and the reference dataset. MRA findings were concordant with DSA.
4D time-resolved MRA with keyhole (4D-TRAK) is feasible using a combination of CENTRA, keyhole, and SENSE at 3.0T and allows for more than 60 times accelerated MRA with high spatial resolution.
"Time-resolved MRA (TR-MRA) is an alternative MRA technique which uses a keyhole imaging approach to sample the center of k-space more frequently compared with high-spatial-frequency information peripherally to obtain MRA images with high temporal resolution, such as 4D time-resolved MRA with keyhole (4D-TRAK), time-resolved imaging with stochastic trajectories (TWIST), time-resolved echo-shared angiography technique (TREAT), time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS) [8,10-13]. 4D-TRAK with a combination of parallel imaging and CENTRA at high field strength has demonstrated its wide clinical potential in the characterization of multiple vascular lesions because of the high temporal and spatial resolution obtained simultaneously in previous studies [6-9]. Most ruptured CAs in clinical are ≥ 3 mm in diameter. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
A subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to the rupture of a cerebral aneurysm (CA) is a devastating event associated with high rates of mortality. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), as a noninvasive technique, is typically used initially. The object of our study is to evaluate the feasibility of 4D time-resolved MRA with keyhole (4D-TRAK) for the diagnostic accuracy and reliability of the detection and characterization of cerebral aneurysms (CAs), with a comparison of 3D time-of-flight MRA (3D-TOF-MRA) by using DSA as a reference.
3D-TOF-MRA, 4D-TRAK and 3D-DSA were performed sequentially in 52 patients with suspected CAs. 4D-TRAK was acquired using a combination of sensitivity encoding (SENSE) and CE timing robust angiography (CENTRA) k-space sampling techniques at a contrast dose of 10 ml at 3 T. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity of 4D-TRAK and 3D-TOF-MRA were calculated and compared for the detection of CAs on patient-based and aneurysm-based evaluation using 3D-DSA as a reference.
The overall image quality of 4D-TRAK with a contrast dose of 10 ml was in the diagnostic range but still cannot be compared with that of 3D-TOF-MRA. In 52 patients with suspected CAs, fifty-eight CAs were confirmed on 3D-DSA finally. Fifty-one (with 2 false-positives and 9 false-negatives) and 58 (with 1 false-positive and 1 false-negative) CAs were visualized on 4D-TRAK and 3D-TOF-MRA, respectively. Accuracy, sensitivity and specificity on patient-based evaluation of 4D-TRAK and 3D-TOF-MRA were 92.31%, 93.33%, 85.71% and 98.08%, 100%, 85.71%, respectively, and 74.07%, 75.00%, 66.67% and 96.30%, 95.83%, 100% on aneurysm-based evaluation in patients with multiple CAs, respectively. Subgroup analysis revealed that for 19 very small CAs (maximal diameter <3 mm, measured on 3D-DSA), 9 were missed on 4D-TRAK and 1 on 3D-TOF-MRA (P = 0.008). However, for 39 CAs with maximal diameter ≥ 3 mm, the diagnostic accuracy is equally (39 on 4D-TRAK vs. 39 on 3D-TOF-MRA) (P = 1). In four larger CAs with maximal diameter ≥ 10 mm, 4D-TRAK provided a better characterization of morphology than 3D-TOF-MRA.
4D-TRAK at a lower contrast dose of 10 ml with a combination of SENSE and CENTRA at 3 T could provide similar diagnostic accuracy rate for CAs with maximal diameter ≥ 3 mm, and a better characterization of morphology for larger CAs with maximal diameter ≥ 10 mm compared to 3D-TOF-MRA. However, further study is still needed to improve the “vascular edge” artifact and the compromise in spatial resolution in depiction of CAs with maximal diameter<3 mm.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The combination of high spatial and high temporal resolution contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 3.0 T has enabled the detailed evaluation of functional vascular anatomy and hemodynamics of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Key contributory technical factors for the successful implementation of MRA in patients with different vascular pathologies are multicoil and multichannel receiver arrays, which enable higher parallel acquisition at 3.0 T over a uniform and a large field of view for highly temporally and spatially resolved MRA. Magnetic resonance angiography enables both screening of patients with suspected AVMs and follow-up of patients after therapy. It allows the characterization of AVMs with respect to nidus configuration, size, venous drainage, and so on, according to the Spetzler-Martin classification.
Topics in magnetic resonance imaging: TMRI 11/2008; 19(5):251-7. DOI:10.1097/RMR.0b013e3181a98d5f
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance provides a wide variety of possibilities for arterial and venous blood vessel imaging in all vascular territories. This article provides a brief review of the technical principles of MR angiography. The first section is dedicated to non-contrast-enhanced angiography techniques and includes several distinct approaches: time-of-flight, phase contrast, triggered angiography non-contrast-enhanced, and balanced steady-state free precession. The second section relates to the contrast-enhanced and time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography methods. The latest technical developments in MR imaging hardware, sequences and software, coil technology, and reconstruction capability allow dynamic MR angiography performance similar to CT angiography, without risks of iodine contrast agent and ionizing radiation exposure.
Magnetic resonance imaging clinics of North America 03/2009; 17(1):1-11. DOI:10.1016/j.mric.2009.01.012 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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