Congenital malformations of the uterus: the role of ultrasound.
ABSTRACT Congenital uterine anomalies in women often do not cause any symptoms, except when there is an obstruction of the uterine outflow tract, which occurs infrequently. Patients with congenital uterine anomalies often go undetected or are only discovered incidentally during an evaluation for something else. Consequently, it is difficult to determine the prevalence of congenital uterine anomalies in the general population, and it appears more frequently in certain populations, namely in those with recurrent pregnancy loss or infertility. This paper will review the pathogenesis of congenital uterine anomalies and the standard classification for these anomalies. We will focus on ultrasound and other diagnostic modalities (hysterosalpingogram, laparoscopy with hysteroscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging). We will compare the accuracy and differences between these diagnostic techniques. With the development of three-dimensional ultrasound, the diagnosis of congenital uterine anomalies can be made accurately, effectively, and with less invasiveness than with other procedures. We will briefly review the treatments and pregnancy outcomes in these different anomalies.