Article

Incontinence pads: recommending the best product-based wetback performance and price.

Division of Urogynecology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO 63117, USA.
International Urogynecology Journal (Impact Factor: 2.16). 05/2008; 19(10):1411-4. DOI: 10.1007/s00192-008-0645-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Incontinence pads are available in the USA without a prescription and are commonly the first treatment option a patient with incontinence uses. The goal of this study was to examine the difference in the performance and cost of commercially available incontinence pads with the intention of providing recommendations to women. Ten different urinary incontinence products were selected. A modified wetback test was used to test product performance. For the small volume leaks, the Walgreen's Extra pad generally performed worse on the wetback test than the three other pads tested (p = 0.001-0.012), but four tests were not statistically significant. At larger leak volumes, the Walgreen's underwear generally performed worse than other products (p < or = 0.001-0.046), with some exceptions. Brand name products generally performed better than generic products, but cost more. Undergarments and underwear do the worst job of keeping moisture inside the pad.

0 Followers
 · 
94 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rather than resorting to extrinsic aids, like using additional heat insulation/storage or phase change materials or surface coatings as in other current infrared camouflage technologies, a new scheme of perspiration based infrared camouflage and a corresponding multi-layer cloth prototype were proposed recently by the present authors. In this paper, several experiments were conducted on a three-layer system based on the proposed prototype, and the original theories were modified to suit the experimental system. The experimental results compared well with the theoretical predictions in verifying the principle of proposed perspiration based infrared camouflage, and in examining the effects of such factors as layer thickness and layer sequence. More importantly, through a heat flux analysis, we found that the ratio of the latent heat flux to the sensible heat flux (ql/qs) can be used as a general criterion in designing the comfort performance of a cloth system. For the perspiration based infrared camouflage: the higher the ratio, the better the infrared camouflage effect.
    Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 04/2013; 46:211–220. DOI:10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2012.12.013 · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is a common problem in elderly incontinent people. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted to examine and compare properties of intact skin on the buttocks and subumbilicus area in elderly people wearing absorbent products and to identify pad environment factors that affect skin properties. Study participants included 45 elderly (age range: 68 to 103 years) female residents of one nursing home who were incontinent of feces and urine (dual incontinence group--DIG, n = 35) or feces only (fecal incontinence group--FIG, n= 10). Skin pH and hydration were measured and factors believed to affect the perineal environment and contribute to the development of IAD were assessed. In both DIG and FIG, skin hydration levels and pH were higher in the coccygeal than in the subumbilical area. Skin hydration of the sacral region in the DIG was significantly higher than in the FIG (P = 0.019) and skin pH on the coccygeal region and sacral region in the DIG was significantly higher than in the FIG (coccygeal region, P = 0.013; sacral region, P = 0.023). Absorbent pad surface pH (P &0.01) and excessive sweating (P = 0.006) were significantly related to skin pH. Results show that properties of perineal skin in elderly women with incontinence are affected by occlusion with pads, increasing the risk of IAD. Studies comparing the effect of various types of pads and pad-change frequencies on skin properties are needed.
    Ostomy/wound management 12/2010; 56(12):26-8, 30-3. · 1.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study is to investigate the possibility of comparing the performance of different absorbent aids in terms of odour control by discussing a suitable methodology for product evaluation. In order to overcome the problems of low test reproducibility due to biological urine variability, the first step of the work consisted in the identification and the production of artificial urine having a constant and stable composition over time, moreover preventing sensorial assessors from any risk of biological contamination. Sensorial measurements were performed in order to optimize the similarity between artificial and biological urine, especially as far as the composition of the volatile component and therefore of the odour properties are concerned. The assessment of absorbent articles performance to control urine malodour includes both the concentration and the hedonic tone of the odour released by the article itself loaded with synthetic urine. Analyses were run on different products, which can be grouped into two different classes: absorbing aids with or without odour control technology (OCT), respectively. Results show that, despite of the presence or absence of OCT on absorbing products, their odour concentrations are almost identical, being comprised between 10,000 and 12,000 ou(E) m(-3) . For this reason, it is evident that odour concentration is not suitable as the sole parameter for comparison of different absorbing products. Instead, the hedonic odour tone (odour pleasantness/unpleasantness) relevant to the different product typologies (that is products with and without OCT) should be used as an additional discriminating factor for this kind of comparative tests. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.
    International journal of cosmetic science 12/2012; 35(4). DOI:10.1111/ics.12028 · 1.45 Impact Factor