Murine intramyocellular lipids quantified by NMR act as metabolic biomarkers in burn trauma.
ABSTRACT It has been suggested that intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs) may serve as biomarkers of insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. Using a hind-limb mouse model of burn trauma, we tested the hypothesis that severe localized burn trauma involving 5% of the total body surface area causes a local increase in IMCLs in the leg skeletal muscle. We quantified IMCLs from ex vivo intact tissue specimens using High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) 1H NMR and characterized the accompanying gene expression patterns in burned versus control skeletal muscle specimens. We also quantified plasma-free fatty acids (FFAs) in burn versus control mice. Our results from HRMAS 1H NMR measurements indicated that IMCL levels were significantly increased in mice exposed to burn trauma. Furthermore, plasma FFA levels were also significantly increased, and gene expression of Glut4, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), glycolytic genes, and PGC-1beta was downregulated in these mice. Backward stepwise multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that IMCL levels correlated significantly with FFA levels, which were a significant predictor of IRS1 and PGC-1beta gene expression. We conclude from these findings that IMCLs can serve as metabolic biomarkers in burn trauma and that FFAs and IMCLs may signal altered metabolic gene expression. This signaling may result in the observed burn-induced insulin resistance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction. We believe that IMCLs may therefore be useful biomarkers in predicting the therapeutic effectiveness of hypolipidemic agents for patients with severe burns.
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ABSTRACT: Using a mouse model, we tested the hypotheses that severe burn trauma causes metabolic disturbances in skeletal muscle, and that these can be measured and repeatedly followed by in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). We used a 1.2-GHz (L-band) EPR spectrometer to measure partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2)) levels, redox status and oxidative stress following a non-lethal burn trauma model to the left hind limbs of mice. Results obtained in the burned mouse gastrocnemius muscle indicated a significant decrease in tissue pO(2) immediately (P=0.032) and at 6 h post burn (P=0.004), compared to the gastrocnemius of the unburned hind limb. The redox status of the skeletal muscle also peaked at 6 h post burn (P=0.027) in burned mice. In addition, there was an increase in the EPR signal of the nitroxide produced by oxidation of the hydroxylamine (CP-H) probe at 12 h post burn injury, indicating a burn-induced increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). The nitroxide signal continued to increase between 12 and 24 h, suggesting a further increase in ROS generation post burn. These results confirm genomic results, which indicate a downregulation of antioxidant genes and therefore strongly suggest the dysfunction of the mitochondrial oxidative system. We believe that the direct measurement of tissue parameters such as pO(2), redox and ROS by EPR may be used to complement measurements by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in order to assess tissue damage and the therapeutic effectiveness of antioxidant agents in severe burn trauma.Molecular Medicine Reports 11/2008; 1(6):813-819. DOI:10.3892/mmr-00000033 · 1.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), a non-destructive biochemical tool for investigating live organisms, has yet to be used in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, a useful model organism for investigating genetics and physiology. We developed and implemented a high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HRMAS) MRS method to investigate live Drosophila at 14.1 T. We demonstrated, for the first time, the feasibility of using HRMAS MRS for molecular characterization of Drosophila with a conventional MR spectrometer equipped with an HRMAS probe. We showed that the metabolic HRMAS MRS profiles of injured, aged wild-type (wt) flies and of immune deficient (imd) flies were more similar to chico flies mutated at the chico gene in the insulin signaling pathway, which is analogous to insulin receptor substrate1-4 (IRS1-4) in mammals and less to those of adipokinetic hormone receptor (akhr) mutant flies, which have an obese phenotype. We thus provide evidence for the hypothesis that trauma in aging and in innate immune-deficiency is linked to insulin signaling. This link may explain the mitochondrial dysfunction that accompanies insulin resistance and muscle wasting that occurs in trauma, aging and immune system deficiencies, leading to higher susceptibility to infection. Our approach advances the development of novel in vivo non-destructive research approaches in Drosophila, suggests biomarkers for investigation of biomedical paradigms, and thus may contribute to novel therapeutic development.International Journal of Molecular Medicine 08/2010; 26(2):175-84. DOI:10.3892/ijmm_00000450 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cancer patients commonly suffer from cachexia, a syndrome in which tumors induce metabolic changes in the host that lead to massive loss in skeletal muscle mass. Using a preclinical mouse model of cancer cachexia, we tested the hypothesis that tumor inoculation causes a reduction in ATP synthesis and genome-wide aberrant expression in skeletal muscle. Mice implanted with Lewis lung carcinomas were examined by in vivo 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We examined ATP synthesis rate and the expression of genes that play key-regulatory roles in skeletal muscle metabolism. Our in vivo NMR results showed reduced ATP synthesis rate in tumor-bearing (TB) mice relative to control (C) mice, and were cross-validated with whole genome transcriptome data showing atypical expression levels of skeletal muscle regulatory genes such as peroxisomal proliferator activator receptor γ coactivator 1 ß (PGC-1ß), a major regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and, mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3). Aberrant pattern of gene expression was also associated with genes involved in inflammation and immune response, protein and lipid catabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis and uncoupling, and inadequate oxidative stress defenses, and these effects led to cachexia. Our findings suggest that reduced ATP synthesis is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction, ultimately leading to skeletal muscle wasting and thus advance our understanding of skeletal muscle dysfunction suffered by cancer patients. This study represents a new line of research that can support the development of novel therapeutics in the molecular medicine of skeletal muscle wasting. Such therapeutics would have wide-spread applications not only for cancer patients, but also for many individuals suffering from other chronic or endstage diseases that exhibit muscle wasting, a condition for which only marginally effective treatments are currently available.International Journal of Molecular Medicine 11/2010; 27(1):15-24. DOI:10.3892/ijmm.2010.557 · 1.88 Impact Factor