Murine intramyocellular lipids quantified by NMR act as metabolic biomarkers in burn trauma.
ABSTRACT It has been suggested that intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs) may serve as biomarkers of insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. Using a hind-limb mouse model of burn trauma, we tested the hypothesis that severe localized burn trauma involving 5% of the total body surface area causes a local increase in IMCLs in the leg skeletal muscle. We quantified IMCLs from ex vivo intact tissue specimens using High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) 1H NMR and characterized the accompanying gene expression patterns in burned versus control skeletal muscle specimens. We also quantified plasma-free fatty acids (FFAs) in burn versus control mice. Our results from HRMAS 1H NMR measurements indicated that IMCL levels were significantly increased in mice exposed to burn trauma. Furthermore, plasma FFA levels were also significantly increased, and gene expression of Glut4, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), glycolytic genes, and PGC-1beta was downregulated in these mice. Backward stepwise multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that IMCL levels correlated significantly with FFA levels, which were a significant predictor of IRS1 and PGC-1beta gene expression. We conclude from these findings that IMCLs can serve as metabolic biomarkers in burn trauma and that FFAs and IMCLs may signal altered metabolic gene expression. This signaling may result in the observed burn-induced insulin resistance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction. We believe that IMCLs may therefore be useful biomarkers in predicting the therapeutic effectiveness of hypolipidemic agents for patients with severe burns.
SourceAvailable from: Hazel Szeto[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Burn injury causes a major systemic catabolic response that is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. We investigated the effects of the mitochondria-targeted peptide antioxidant Szeto-Schiller 31 (SS-31) on skeletal muscle in a mouse burn model using in vivo phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy to noninvasively measure high-energy phosphate levels; mitochondrial aconitase activity measurements that directly correlate with TCA cycle flux, as measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS); and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to assess oxidative stress. At 6 h postburn, the oxidative ATP synthesis rate was increased 5-fold in burned mice given a single dose of SS-31 relative to untreated burned mice (P=0.002). Furthermore, SS-31 administration in burned animals decreased mitochondrial aconitase activity back to control levels. EPR revealed a recovery in redox status of the SS-31-treated burn group compared to the untreated burn group (P<0.05). Our multidisciplinary convergent results suggest that SS-31 promotes recovery of mitochondrial function after burn injury by increasing ATP synthesis rate, improving mitochondrial redox status, and restoring mitochondrial coupling. These findings suggest use of noninvasive in vivo NMR and complementary EPR offers an approach to monitor the effectiveness of mitochondrial protective agents in alleviating burn injury symptoms.-Righi, V., Constantinou, C., Mintzopoulos, D., Khan, N., Mupparaju, S. P., Rahme, L. G., Swartz, H. M., Szeto, H. H., Tompkins, R. G., and Tzika, A. A. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant promotes recovery of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function after burn trauma assessed by in vivo 31P nuclear magnetic resonance and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.The FASEB Journal 03/2013; DOI:10.1096/fj.12-220764 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Burn injury results in a chronic inflammatory, hypermetabolic, and hypercatabolic state persisting long after initial injury and wound healing. Burn survivors experience a profound and prolonged loss of lean body mass, fat mass, and bone mineral density, associated with significant morbidity and reduced quality of life. Understanding the mechanisms responsible is essential for developing therapies. A complete characterization of the pathophysiology of burn cachexia in a reproducible mouse model was lacking. Young adult (12-16 weeks of age) male C57BL/6J mice were given full thickness burns using heated brass plates or sham injury. Food and water intake, organ and muscle weights, and muscle fiber diameters were measured. Body composition was determined by Piximus. Plasma analyte levels were determined by bead array assay. Survival and weight loss were dependent upon burn size. The body weight nadir in burned mice was 14 days, at which time we observed reductions in total body mass, lean carcass mass, individual muscle weights, and muscle fiber cross-sectional area. Muscle loss was associated with increased expression of the muscle ubiquitin ligase, MuRF1. Burned mice also exhibited reduced fat mass and bone mineral density, concomitant with increased liver, spleen, and heart mass. Recovery of initial body weight occurred at 35 days; however, burned mice exhibited hyperphagia and polydipsia out to 80 days. Burned mice had significant increases in serum cytokine, chemokine, and acute phase proteins, consistent with findings in human burn subjects. This study describes a mouse model that largely mimics human pathophysiology following severe burn injury. These baseline data provide a framework for mouse-based pharmacological and genetic investigation of burn-injury-associated cachexia.03/2012; 3(3):199-211. DOI:10.1007/s13539-012-0062-x
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondria integrate distinct signals that reflect specific threats to the host, including infection, tissue damage, and metabolic dysfunction; and play a key role in insulin resistance. We have found that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing infochemical, 2-amino acetophenone (2-AA), produced during acute and chronic infection in human tissues, including in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, acts as an interkingdom immunomodulatory signal that facilitates pathogen persistence, and host tolerance to infection. Transcriptome results have led to the hypothesis that 2-AA causes further harm to the host by triggering mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. As normal skeletal muscle function is essential to survival, and is compromised in many chronic illnesses, including infections and CF-associated muscle wasting, we here determine the global effects of 2-AA on skeletal muscle using high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HRMAS), proton ((1)H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics, in vivo (31)P NMR, whole-genome expression analysis and functional studies. Our results show that 2-AA when injected into mice, induced a biological signature of insulin resistance as determined by (1)H NMR analysis-, and dramatically altered insulin signaling, glucose transport, and mitochondrial function. Genes including Glut4, IRS1, PPAR-γ, PGC1 and Sirt1 were downregulated, whereas uncoupling protein UCP3 was up-regulated, in accordance with mitochondrial dysfunction. Although 2-AA did not alter high-energy phosphates or pH by in vivo (31)P NMR analysis, it significantly reduced the rate of ATP synthesis. This affect was corroborated by results demonstrating down-regulation of the expression of genes involved in energy production and muscle function, and was further validated by muscle function studies. Together, these results further demonstrate that 2-AA, acts as a mediator of interkingdom modulation, and likely effects insulin resistance associated with a molecular signature of mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Reduced energy production and mitochondrial dysfunctional may further favor infection, and be an important step in the establishment of chronic and persistent infections.PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e74528. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0074528 · 3.53 Impact Factor