Multidentate macromolecules for functionalisation, passivation and labelling of metal nanoparticles.
WestCHEM, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, 295 Cathedral Street, Glasgow, UKG1 1XL.Chemical Communications (Impact Factor: 6.38). 07/2008; DOI:10.1039/b801010b
ABSTRACT A new class of SERRS-active macromolecule designed to protect silver nanoparticle surfaces against salt corrosion whilst retaining colloidal stability of the particles is reported.
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ABSTRACT: This paper reviews recent developments in the design and application of two types of optical nanosensor, those based on: (1) localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy and (2) surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The performance of these sensors is discussed in the context of biological and chemical sensing. The first section addresses the LSPR sensors. Arrays of nanotriangles were evaluated and characterized using realistic protein/ligand interactions. Isolated, single nanoparticles were used for chemosensing and performed comparably to the nanoparticle array sensors. In particular, we highlight the effect of nanoparticle morphology on sensing response. The second section details the use of SERS sensors using metal film over nanosphere (MFON) surfaces. The high SERS enhancements and long-term stability of MFONs were exploited in order to develop SERS-based sensors for two important target molecules: a Bacillus anthracis biomarker and glucose in a serum protein mixture.Talanta 10/2005; 67(3):438-448. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Citrate-reduced silver colloids (CRSCs) are used extensively for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of cations but are typically found to be ineffective for detection of anions unless they are treated with compounds that give them positively charged coatings. In this work CRSCs which were suitable for detection of anions were generated by treatment with aggregating agents that did not bind strongly to the silver surface. Under these conditions the major factor determining the enhancement of added anions was their ability to displace whatever anions were already present. In the case of CRSCs, residual citrate was observed when the colloids were aggregated with sulfate salts, since neither sulfate nor the residual nitrate displaced it. On addition of more strongly binding anions, such as halides, the citrate was displaced and the bands of the added analyte appeared, allowing them to be detected without the need for creation of positively charged coatings. It was found that the relative affinities of the anions, as determined by displacement experiments monitored by SERS, followed the solubilities of their silver salts, presumably because both properties are strongly dependent on the strength of the Ag-anion bonds. The relative affinities determine which anions can be detected in the presence of which others; nitrate, sulfate, and perchlorate are lower in the series than citrate and so are not observed. Displacement experiments show that dipicolinic acid (DPA) and Cl(-) have similar (stronger) binding, but they can be displaced in turn by Br(-) and I(-), which have the highest affinity and lowest solubility. This model allows a broad range of previous observations to be rationalized and allows the experimental conditions suitable for detection of particular new analytes to be designed on rational principles.The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 09/2005; 109(33):7405-10. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We describe a rapid, eukaryotic, in vitro method for selection and evolution of antibody combining sites using antibody-ribosome-mRNA (ARM) complexes as selection particles. ARMs carrying single-chain (VH/K) binding fragments specific for progesterone were selected using antigen-coupled magnetic beads; selection simultaneously captured the genetic information as mRNA, making it possible to generate and amplify cDNA by single-step RT-PCR on the ribosome-bound mRNA for further manipulation. Using mutant libraries, antigen-binding ARMs were enriched by a factor of 10(4)-10(5)-fold in a single cycle, with further enrichment in repeated cycles. While demonstrated here for antibodies, the method has the potential to be applied equally for selection of receptors or peptides from libraries.Nucleic Acids Research 01/1998; 25(24):5132-4. · 8.28 Impact Factor
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