The conventional management of thrombotic and cardiovascular disorders is based on the use of heparin, oral anticoagulants and aspirin. Despite progress in the sciences, these drugs still remain a challenge and mystery. The development of low molecular weight heparins (LMWHS) and the synthesis of heparinomimetics represent a refined use of heparin. Additional drugs will continue to develop. However, none of these drugs will ever match the polypharmacology of heparin. Aspirin still remains the leading drug in the management of thrombotic and cardiovascular disorders. The newer antiplatelet drugs such as adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitors, GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors and other specific inhibitors have limited effects and have been tested in patients who have already been treated with aspirin. Warfarin provides a convenient and affordable approach in the long-term outpatient management of thrombotic disorders. The optimized use of these drugs still remains the approach of choice to manage thrombotic disorders. The new anticoagulant targets, such as tissue factor, individual clotting factors, recombinant forms of serpins (antithrombin, heparin co-factor II and tissue factor pathway inhibitors), recombinant activated protein C, thrombomodulin and site specific serine proteases inhibitors complexes have also been developed. There is a major thrust on the development of orally bioavailable anti-Xa and IIa agents, which are slated to replace oral anticoagulants. Both the anti-factor Xa and anti-IIa agents have been developed for oral use and have provided impressive clinical results. However, safety concerns related to liver enzyme elevations and thrombosis rebound have been reported with their use. For these reasons, the US Food and Drug Administration did not approve the orally active antithrombin agent Ximelagatran for several indications. The synthetic pentasaccharide (Fondaparinux) has undergone clinical development. Unexpectedly, Fondaparinux also produced major bleeding problems at minimal dosages. Fondaparinux represents only one of the multiple pharmacologic effects of heparins. Thus, its therapeutic index will be proportionately narrower. The newer antiplatelet drugs have added a new dimension in the management of thrombotic disorders. The favorable clinical outcomes with aspirin and clopidogrel have validated COX-1 and P2Y12 receptors as targets for new drug development. Prasugrel, a novel thienopyridine, Cangrelor and AZD 6140 represent newer P2Y12 antagonists. Cangrelor and AZD 6140 are direct inhibitors, whereas Prasugrel requires metabolic activation. While clinically effective, recent results have prompted a closure of a clinical trial with Prasugrel due to bleeding. The newer anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs are attractive, however, none of these are expected to replace the conventional drugs in polytherapeutic approaches. Heparins, warfarin and aspirin will continue to play a major role in the management of thrombotic and cardiovascular disorders for years to come.
"Factor Xa inhibitors, like heparin and enoxaparin, their analogues and homologues, represent a more comprehensive approach to controlling thrombogenesis. These medications bind to Antithrombin III, a serine protease inhibitor . Furthermore, enoxaparin during haemodialysis is associated with less platelet reactivity compared with heparin and is safer than heparin for patients with endstage renal disease associated with haemodialysis . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuromolecular Imaging (NMI) based on adsorptive electrochemistry, combined with Dual Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is presented herein to investigate the brain neurochemistry affected by enoxaparin (Lovenox(®)), an antiplatelet/antithrombotic medication for stroke victims. NMI with miniature biosensors enables neurotransmitter and neuropeptide (NT) imaging; each NT is imaged with a response time in milliseconds. A semiderivative electronic reduction circuit images several NT's selectively and separately within a response time of minutes. Spatial resolution of NMI biosensors is in the range of nanomicrons and electrochemically-induced current ranges are in pico- and nano-amperes. Simultaneously with NMI, the LDF technology presented herein operates on line by illuminating the living brain, in this example, in dorso-striatal neuroanatomic substrates via a laser sensor with low power laser light containing optical fiber light guides. NMI biotechnology with BRODERICK PROBE(®) biosensors has a distinct advantage over conventional electrochemical methodologies both in novelty of biosensor formulations and on-line imaging capabilities in the biosensor field. NMI with unique biocompatible biosensors precisely images NT in the body, blood and brain of animals and humans using characteristic experimentally derived half-wave potentials driven by oxidative electron transfer. Enoxaparin is a first line clinical treatment prescribed to halt the progression of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). In the present studies, BRODERICK PROBE(®) laurate biosensors and LDF laser sensors are placed in dorsal striatum (DStr) dopaminergic motor neurons in basal ganglia of brain in living animals; basal ganglia influence movement disorders such as those correlated with AIS. The purpose of these studies is to understand what is happening in brain neurochemistry and cerebral blood perfusion after causal AIS by middle cerebral artery occlusion in vivo as well as to understand consequent enoxaparin and reperfusion effects actually while enoxaparin is inhibiting blood clots to alleviate AIS symptomatology. This research is directly correlated with the medical and clinical needs of stroke victims. The data are clinically relevant, not only to movement dysfunction but also to the depressive mood that stroke patients often endure. These are the first studies to image brain neurotransmitters while any stroke medications, such as anti-platelet/anti-thrombotic and/or anti-glycoprotein are working in organ systems to alleviate the debilitating consequences of brain trauma and stroke/brain attacks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After carrying out a historical review of anticoagulants, the problems and limitations of current anticoagulants are discussed, and the new anticoagulants are subsequently classify.This review article focuses on new oral anticoagulants. This represents a major commitment by the pharmaceutical industry with some oral, fast-acting, specific target and direct anti-Xa or anti-lla anticoagulants. Products such as dabigatran etexilate and rivaroxaban are in more clinically advanced stages of development.It concludes that, although the new oral anticoagulants are more attractive for various reasons, we still do not know when they will replace conventional anticoagulants. Each specific potential indication will need to be defined along with many studies.
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