Amador JJ, Vicari A, Turcios-Ruiz RM, et al. Outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis with high mortality, Nicaragua, 2005
ABSTRACT We investigated a nationwide outbreak of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in Nicaragua in children under 5 years old, leading to many consultations, hospitalizations, and deaths. We questioned whether a vaccine might have prevented these illnesses and deaths, sought to identify risk factors for death, and developed a clinical profile of children hospitalized with diarrhea.
We conducted a case-control study to determine whether children who died had access to routine immunizations, a proxy predicting access to a rotavirus vaccine. We identified risk factors for death among children who died in the outbreak compared with surviving age-matched controls with diarrhea. We collected stools, clinical data, and immunization data on children hospitalized for diarrhea to test for rotavirus, develop the profile, and forecast future access to a rotavirus vaccine.
The outbreak from February to April 2005 caused 47 470 consultations and 52 deaths. Approximately 80% of cases and controls and 60% of children hospitalized with diarrhea had access to routine immunizations and would likely have had access to a rotavirus vaccine. With a vaccine efficacy of 85%, up to 51% of severe rotavirus cases and up to 68% of deaths could have been prevented if a rotavirus vaccine were available as part of routine childhood immunizations. Study of 35 case-control pairs indicated that severe illnesses, malnutrition, and care by traditional healers were risk factors for death. Rotavirus was found in 42% of samples from hospitalized children and was associated with severe disease and dehydration.
The impact of the seasonal outbreaks of rotavirus disease could be diminished with a rotavirus vaccine, improvements in oral rehydration programs, and training of traditional healers in the proper management of children with acute diarrhea.
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ABSTRACT: Notwithstanding significant advancement in the understanding of pathogenesis and management, diarrheal illnesses remain one of the principal causes of global childhood mortality and morbidity. Infections account for most illnesses, with pathogens employing ingenious mechanisms to establish disease. In 2002, an interdisciplinary program "Populations et al. Espaces à Risques SANitaires" (PERSAN) was set up under the patronage of the Development Research Institute (IRD). Focused on health in Cameroon's urban environment, the program mainly sought to identify diarrhea risk factors in Yaoundé. So for, a cross-sectional epidemiological study in children aged 6-59 months was carried out using a standardized protocol. The survey was initiated in 2002 and conducted during April to June in the year 2005. 3,034 stool samples were collected from children in twenty neighbourhoods in Yaoundé and examined at the Epidemiology and Public Health Laboratory of the Cameroon Pasteur Institute. About 60% of the patients were aged less than two years and 52% were male. Among the 437 patients with the diarrheal disease, 260 were found to be of infectious etiology, i.e. micro organism was detected in 59.5% of the cases. Out of which, 10 (03.8%), 96 (36.9%), and 154 (59.2%) were respectively caused by pathogenic viruses, pathogenic bacteria and pathogenic parasites. Higher prevalence was found in overcrowded and under supply spontaneous settlement (78.4%) than in less crowded and formal residential settlement (21.5%). Etiologic data on diarrheal diseases and their spatial distribution are important tools for public health management and control strategic planning.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 01/2009; 5(4):213-29. DOI:10.3390/ijerph5040213 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acute gastroenteritis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children in the developing world. With improvements in hygiene and sanitation, the burden of disease due to bacterial and parasitic infections has decreased and an increasing proportion of diarrhoea hospitalizations are attributed to viruses. This review focuses on enteric viruses and their role in childhood diarrhoea in the developing world. With the use of sensitive molecular techniques, it is evident that a significant proportion of childhood diarrhoea is attributable to enteric viruses, with at least one viral agent in nearly 43% of samples from childhood diarrhoea in developing countries. Rotaviruses remain the most common pathogens in children, followed by noroviruses in almost all countries. There is increasing evidence that both rotaviruses and caliciviruses spread beyond the gut in a large proportion of infections. The review highlights the importance of viral agents of gastroenteritis in developing countries. Wider use of molecular techniques is resulting in rapid identification of new or emerging strains and in the detection of extra-intestinal spread. There is a need to better understand susceptibility and immune response to these agents to be able to design suitable interventions.Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 08/2009; 22(5):477-82. DOI:10.1097/QCO.0b013e328330662f · 5.01 Impact Factor