The relative risk of cardiovascular death among racial and ethnic minorities with metabolic syndrome: data from the NHANES-II mortality follow-up.
ABSTRACT The tendency for selected cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors to occur in clusters has led to the description of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The relative impact of the individual risk factor on the overall relative risk (RR) for cardiovascular death from metabolic syndrome is not well established and may differ across the different racial/ethnic groups. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) mortality follow-up (NH2MS), we determined the prevalence and RR of cardiovascular death for individual components in the overall population and across racial and ethnic groups. The prevalence of MetS components varied significantly across gender and racial/ethnic groupings. The RR for CVD also varies for the number and different components of MetS. The adjusted RR for cardiovascular death was highest with diabetes (3.23; 95% CI: 2.70-3.88), elevated blood pressure (2.28; 95% CI: 1.94-2.67) and high triglycerides (1.63; 95% CI: 1.34-2.00). Although the RR for cardiovascular death differs significantly for some of the different components, the overall findings were similar across racial/ethnic groups. The two components that confer the highest risks for death are more prevalent in African Americans. We concluded that the RR of cardiovascular death associated with the diagnosis of MetS varies depending on the number and components used to establish the diagnosis of MetS and the racial/ethnic characteristic of the participants.
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ABSTRACT: Although progress has been made to understand the association between physiological and lifestyle behaviors with regard to obesity, ethnic differences in markers of obesity and pathways towards obesity remain somewhat unexplained. However, obesity remains a serious growing concern. This paper highlights ethnic differences in African Americans and Caucasians that may contribute to the higher prevalence of obesity among African Americans. Understanding ethnic differences in metabolic syndrome criteria, functioning of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, variations in glucocorticoid sensitivity and insulin resistance, and physical activity and cardiovascular fitness levels may help to inform practical clinical and public health interventions and reduce obesity disparities.01/2013; 2013:314295. DOI:10.1155/2013/314295This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: Although the classical cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., smoking and hypertension) are becoming more effectively managed, a continuous increase of the so-called "cardiometabolic risk" is noted. Starting from this century, the nomenclature "metabolic syndrome" has become more popular to identify a cluster of disorders including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance. It is a primary risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in both genders. Interestingly, the metabolic diseases display a distinct gender disparity with an apparent "female advantage" in the premenopausal women compared with age-matched men. However, women usually lose such "sex protection" following menopause or affliction of metabolic syndrome especially insulin resistance. A controversy exists in the medical literature concerning whether metabolic syndrome is a real syndrome or simply a cluster of risk factors. Several scenarios are speculated to contribute to the gender dimorphism in the cardiovascular sequelae in patients with metabolic syndrome including sex hormones, intrinsic organ function, and the risk factor profile (e.g., hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and atherogenic diet). With the alarming rise of obesity prevalence, heart problems in metabolic syndrome continue to rise with a distinct gender dimorphism. Although female hearts seem to better tolerate the stress insults compared with the male counterparts, the female sex hormones such as estrogen can interact with certain risk factors to precipitate myopathic changes in the hearts. This synthetic review of recent literature suggests a role of gender disparity in myopathic factors and risk attributable to each metabolic component in the different prevalence of metabolic syndrome.