The relative risk of cardiovascular death among racial and ethnic minorities with metabolic syndrome: data from the NHANES-II mortality follow-up.
ABSTRACT The tendency for selected cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors to occur in clusters has led to the description of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The relative impact of the individual risk factor on the overall relative risk (RR) for cardiovascular death from metabolic syndrome is not well established and may differ across the different racial/ethnic groups. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) mortality follow-up (NH2MS), we determined the prevalence and RR of cardiovascular death for individual components in the overall population and across racial and ethnic groups. The prevalence of MetS components varied significantly across gender and racial/ethnic groupings. The RR for CVD also varies for the number and different components of MetS. The adjusted RR for cardiovascular death was highest with diabetes (3.23; 95% CI: 2.70-3.88), elevated blood pressure (2.28; 95% CI: 1.94-2.67) and high triglycerides (1.63; 95% CI: 1.34-2.00). Although the RR for cardiovascular death differs significantly for some of the different components, the overall findings were similar across racial/ethnic groups. The two components that confer the highest risks for death are more prevalent in African Americans. We concluded that the RR of cardiovascular death associated with the diagnosis of MetS varies depending on the number and components used to establish the diagnosis of MetS and the racial/ethnic characteristic of the participants.
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ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) constitutes a worldwide epidemic burst accounting for billions of cardiovascular disease events and deaths. The genetic basis of MetS is largely unknown. The rs11646213 T → A polymorphism maps at 16q23.3 upstream of the CDH13 gene codifying for cadherin-13 (also known as T-cadherin or H-cadherin), which is considered a vascular adiponectin receptor. This and other single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with hypertension and adiponectin level in separate studies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the CDH13 rs11646213 T → A polymorphism on individual components of MetS and on MetS. The polymorphism was genotyped in the cardiovascular cohort of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (n = 4,942) and successively in the Malmö Preventive Project (n = 17,675) cohort at baseline and after an average of 23 years of follow-up (reinvestigation). Four different definitions of MetS were applied to these cohorts. In the cardiovascular arm, CDH13 rs11646213 AA homozygotic women showed a trend toward higher triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and presented a higher MetS score (composite sum of MetS phenotypes). MetS (Adult Treatment Panel III definition) was more prevalent in AA homozygotic women compared to T-carriers, a result confirmed in the Malmö Preventive Project cohort at baseline and at reinvestigation with an increased risk from 19% to 45% in AA homozygotic women. In conclusion, the CDH13 rs11646213 T > A polymorphism was consistently associated with MetS in Swedish women recruited in 2 large cohorts. In light of the role of cadherin-13 as a vascular receptor for adiponectin, our study supports the genetic basis for the role of adiponectin in MetS pathogenesis.The American journal of cardiology 08/2011; 108(10):1432-7. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vanin-1 (gene name VNN1) is an enzyme with pantetheinase activity generating the amino-thiol cysteamine which is implicated in the regulation of red-ox status through its effect on glutathione. We tested the hypothesis that the rs2294757 VNN1 T26I polymorphism could affect blood pressure (BP) levels, hypertension prevalence, and risk of incident cardiovascular events. METHODS AND RESULTS: The VNN1 T26I polymorphism was genotyped in 5664 participants of the cardiovascular cohort of the "Malmö Diet and Cancer" (MDC-CVA) study and successively in 17874 participants of the "Malmö Preventive project"(MPP). The incidence of cardiovascular events was monitored for an average of nearly 12 years of follow-up in the MDC-CVA and for 25 years in the MPP. Both before and after adjustment for sex, age and BMI in the MDC-CVA the polymorphism had a mild lowering effect on diastolic BP and hypertension, especially in females. However in MPP no effect on BP phenotypes was detectable. Before and after adjustment for major cardiovascular risk factors, the hazard ratio for incident ischemic stroke and coronary events in the MDC-CVA was not significantly different in carriers of different genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Our data do not support a major role for the VNN1 T26I variant in determining BP level and incident ischemic events.Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 05/2011; · 3.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although the classical cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., smoking and hypertension) are becoming more effectively managed, a continuous increase of the so-called "cardiometabolic risk" is noted. Starting from this century, the nomenclature "metabolic syndrome" has become more popular to identify a cluster of disorders including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance. It is a primary risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in both genders. Interestingly, the metabolic diseases display a distinct gender disparity with an apparent "female advantage" in the premenopausal women compared with age-matched men. However, women usually lose such "sex protection" following menopause or affliction of metabolic syndrome especially insulin resistance. A controversy exists in the medical literature concerning whether metabolic syndrome is a real syndrome or simply a cluster of risk factors. Several scenarios are speculated to contribute to the gender dimorphism in the cardiovascular sequelae in patients with metabolic syndrome including sex hormones, intrinsic organ function, and the risk factor profile (e.g., hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and atherogenic diet). With the alarming rise of obesity prevalence, heart problems in metabolic syndrome continue to rise with a distinct gender dimorphism. Although female hearts seem to better tolerate the stress insults compared with the male counterparts, the female sex hormones such as estrogen can interact with certain risk factors to precipitate myopathic changes in the hearts. This synthetic review of recent literature suggests a role of gender disparity in myopathic factors and risk attributable to each metabolic component in the different prevalence of metabolic syndrome.