Article

Identification of dkk4 as a target of Eda-A1/Edar pathway reveals an unexpected role of ectodysplasin as inhibitor of Wnt signalling in ectodermal placodes

Institute of Biotechnology, Developmental Biology Program, University of Helsinki, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.
Developmental Biology (Impact Factor: 3.64). 05/2008; 320(1):60-71. DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2008.04.023
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The development of epithelial appendages, including hairs, glands and teeth starts from ectodermal placodes, and is regulated by interplay of stimulatory and inhibitory signals. Ectodysplasin-A1 (Eda-A1) and Wnts are high in hierarchy of placode activators. To identify direct targets of ectodysplasin pathway, we performed microarray profiling of genes differentially regulated by short exposure to recombinant Eda-A1 in embryonic eda(-/-) skin explants. Surprisingly, there were only two genes with obvious involvement in Wnt pathway: dkk4 (most highly induced gene in the screen), and lrp4. Both genes colocalized with Eda-A1 receptor Edar in placodes of ectodermal organs. They were upregulated upon Edar activation while several other Wnt associated genes previously suggested as Edar targets were unaffected. However, low dkk4 and lrp4 expression was retained in the absence of NF-kappaB signalling in eda(-/-) hair placodes. We provide evidence that this expression was dependent on Wnt activity present prior to Eda-A1/Edar signalling. Dkk4 was recently suggested as a key Wnt antagonist regulating lateral inhibition essential for correct patterning of hair follicles. Several pieces of evidence suggest Lrp4 as a Wnt inhibitor, as well. The finding that Eda-A1 induces placode inhibitors was unexpected, and underlines the importance of delicate fine-tuning of signalling during placode formation.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Sylvie Lefebvre, Apr 08, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
73 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The continuously growing mouse incisor serves as a valuable model to study stem cell regulation during organ renewal. Epithelial stem cells are localized in the proximal end of the incisor in the labial cervical loop. Here, we show that the transcription factor Sox2 is a specific marker for these stem cells. Sox2+ cells became restricted to the labial cervical loop during tooth morphogenesis, and they contributed to the renewal of enamel-producing ameloblasts as well as all other epithelial cell lineages of the tooth. The early progeny of Sox2-positive stem cells transiently expressed the Wnt inhibitor Sfrp5. Sox2 expression was regulated by the tooth initiation marker FGF8 and specific miRNAs, suggesting a fine-tuning to maintain homeostasis of the dental epithelium. The identification of Sox2 as a marker for the dental epithelial stem cells will facilitate further studies on their lineage segregation and differentiation during tooth renewal.
    Developmental Cell 07/2012; 23(2):317-28. DOI:10.1016/j.devcel.2012.05.012 · 10.37 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ectodysplasin (Eda), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (Tnf) family, regulates skin appendage morphogenesis via its receptor Edar and transcription factor NF-κB. In humans, inactivating mutations in the Eda pathway components lead to hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED), a syndrome characterized by sparse hair, tooth abnormalities, and defects in several cutaneous glands. A corresponding phenotype is observed in Eda-null mice, where failure in the initiation of the first wave of hair follicle development is a hallmark of HED pathogenesis. In an attempt to discover immediate target genes of the Eda/NF-κB pathway, we performed microarray profiling of genes differentially expressed in embryonic skin explants after a short exposure to recombinant Fc-Eda protein. Upregulated genes included components of the Wnt, fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-β, Tnf, and epidermal growth factor families, indicating that Eda modulates multiple signaling pathways implicated in skin appendage development. Surprisingly, we identified two ligands of the chemokine receptor cxcR3, cxcl10 and cxcl11, as new hair-specific transcriptional targets of Eda. Deficiency in cxcR3 resulted in decreased primary hair follicle density but otherwise normal hair development, indicating that chemokine signaling influences the patterning of primary hair placodes only.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 01/2012; 132(4):1094-102. DOI:10.1038/jid.2011.453 · 6.37 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family is a large evolutionarily conserved group of transmembrane proteins. It has been shown that LDL receptor family members can also function as direct signal transducers or modulators for a broad range of cellular signaling pathways. We have identified a novel mode of signaling pathway integration/coordination that occurs outside cells during development that involves an LDL receptor family member. Physical interaction between an extracellular protein (Wise) that binds BMP ligands and an Lrp receptor (Lrp4) that modulates Wnt signaling, acts to link these two pathways. Mutations in either Wise or Lrp4 in mice produce multiple, but identical abnormalities in tooth development that are linked to alterations in BMP and Wnt signaling. Teeth, in common with many other organs, develop by a series of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, orchestrated by multiple cell signaling pathways. In tooth development, Lrp4 is expressed exclusively in epithelial cells and Wise mainly in mesenchymal cells. Our hypothesis, based on the mutant phenotypes, cell signaling activity changes and biochemical interactions between Wise and Lrp4 proteins, is that Wise and Lrp4 together act as an extracellular mechanism of coordinating BMP and Wnt signaling activities in epithelial-mesenchymal cell communication during development.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 12/2010; 152A(12):2974-83. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.33372 · 2.05 Impact Factor