MRI total sagittal abdominal diameter as a predictor of metabolic syndrome compared to visceral fat at L4-L5 level.
ABSTRACT To compare associations between anteroposterior (AP) diameter or sagittal abdominal diameter - a measure of total central fat, and visceral fat alone with the metabolic syndrome as defined by ATPIII criteria.
Twenty-four Caucasian male with type 2 diabetes and 24 non-diabetic Caucasian male subjects [body mass index (BMI) (+/-SD): 32.23 +/- 7.52 kg/m(2), age (+/-SD): 51.35 +/- 13.80 years] were studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to measure central fat at L4-L5 level. The visceral and total central adipose tissue was calculated in cm(2) and total sagittal MRI diameter and visceral sagittal MRI diameters in cm. Components of the ATPIII definition of the metabolic syndrome and circulating adipocytokine concentrations were also measured.
MRI total sagittal abdominal diameter was positively associated with waist circumference in controls (r=0.62, p=0.007) and in diabetic subjects (r=0.81, p<0.001). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that MRI-calculated total sagittal diameter (r=0.61, p=0.002) was a more significant predictor of the adverse metabolic profile of the metabolic syndrome than MRI-assessed visceral fat. Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that MRI-calculated total sagittal diameter most effectively identified subjects with the metabolic syndrome.
MRI-calculated total sagittal abdominal diameter is a non-validated MRI method that predicts the adverse metabolic profile of the ATPIII definition of the metabolic syndrome. Antero-posterior fat is a dimension of central fat that seems to be more closely associated with cardiovascular risk compared to visceral fat.
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether the direct measure of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) by computed tomography (CT) is a superior diagnostic criterion to the anthropometric surrogates and more classical criteria of obesity. Cross-sectional, clinical study. Obese boys were classified according to the occurrence of abnormal values in either serum triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase or insulin level. A threshold value of each criterion for such metabolic derangement was calculated, using the analysis of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Seventy-five consecutive outpatient Japanese obese boys, ranging in age from 6 to 14 y, were studied. Anthropometric indices measured were height, body weight, waist girth, hip girth, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses. Classical criteria for obesity used were percentage overweight (POW), body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat. Waist girth, sagittal diameter by CT and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were evaluated as anthropometric surrogates for VAT. The areas of total abdominal fat (TAF), VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured by CT at the level of the umbilicus. Clinical blood biochemistry was analyzed in fasting blood samples of obese boys. Thirty-three boys were classified into a no-complication group, and 42 into a complication group. TAF, VAT and SAT areas were closely associated with age, body size and degree of overweight and adiposity, while VAT/SAT was not. VAT area, sagittal diameter, TAF area and waist girth were closely correlated with alanine aminotransferase, insulin, TG and HDL-C. VAT/SAT, BMI, SAT area, WHR, percentage body fat and POW were less closely associated with these biochemical indices. The descending order of the values of area under the curve for the ROC curves were as follows: VAT>sagittal diameter>TAF>VAT/SAT>waist girth>BMI>WHR>percentage body fat>POW. Both VAT area and VAT/SAT gave >80% of sensitivity and specificity. Among the anthropometric indices studied, the sagittal diameter was the best surrogate of visceral fat measure. The sensitivity and specificity for the rest of the anthropometric indices were in an unsatisfactory range. The threshold values for VAT area, VAT/SAT and sagittal diameter were 58.0 cm(2), 0.276 and 19.2 cm, respectively. The threshold values for VAT area, VAT/SAT and sagittal diameter for detecting biochemical complication in Japanese obese boys were lower than the respective values reported in adults. These values can be used for classifying the obese boys into two types: those with medical problem and those without.International Journal of Obesity 02/2002; 26(2):208-13. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the relationships between the supine sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and visceral fat, as well as to evaluate intra- and inter-observer reliability of sagittal diameter measurement. Twenty-eight women ranging in age from 27-78 y with a body mass index (BMI) ranging from 16.9-48.1 kg/m2 and 23 men ranging in age from 32-75 y with BMI ranging from 20-41.6 kg/m2. Body fat distribution was measured by waist circumference, waist to hip ratio (WHR), SAD, anthropometrically assessed and a single slice of computed tomography (CT) at the L4-L5 level. In both genders, a significant association was found between visceral adipose tissue (AT) and SAD, as evaluated by CT (women r = 0.80; men r = 0.83, P < 0.001), and SAD by anthropometry (women r = 0.76; men r = 0.82, P < 0.001), as well as between visceral AT and waist circumference (women r = 0.76, men r = 0.86, P < 0.001) and WHR (women r = 0.57, P < 0.01, men r = 0.80, P < 0.001). A significant association was also found between subcutaneous AT and SAD by anthropometry (women r = 0.79, men r = 0.74, P < 0.001). After adjusting for BMI, the association between subcutaneous AT and SAD was no longer significant in men and only moderately significant in women (r = 0.42, P < 0.05), while the association between visceral AT and SAD by anthropometry remained significant in both genders (women r = 0.63, P < 0.001; men r = 0.66, P < 0.001). When the subjects were divided into two groups according to BMI (lean to moderately overweight women with BMI < 28 and men with BMI < 30 and obese women with BMI > 28 and men with BMI > 30) we found that the relationships between SAD by anthropometry, as well as SAD by CT and visceral AT, were higher in lean to moderately overweight subjects than in those who were obese. High inter-observer correlation was found concerning SAD measurement (r = 0.99, P < 0.001). Intra- and inter-observer precision as evaluated by coefficient of variation and intraclass correlation coefficient for SAD measurement was very high. Our study shows the usefulness of SAD by anthropometry to predict visceral fat and its very high inter- and intra-observer precision.International Journal of Obesity 07/1998; 22(7):655-60. · 5.22 Impact Factor
Article: Obesity as a medical problem.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Obesity is now so common within the world's population that it is beginning to replace undernutrition and infectious diseases as the most significant contributor to ill health. In particular, obesity is associated with diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, certain forms of cancer, and sleep-breathing disorders. Obesity is defined by a body-mass index (weight divided by square of the height) of 30 kg m(-2) or greater, but this does not take into account the morbidity and mortality associated with more modest degrees of overweight, nor the detrimental effect of intra-abdominal fat. The global epidemic of obesity results from a combination of genetic susceptibility, increased availability of high-energy foods and decreased requirement for physical activity in modern society. Obesity should no longer be regarded simply as a cosmetic problem affecting certain individuals, but an epidemic that threatens global well being.Nature 05/2000; 404(6778):635-43. · 38.60 Impact Factor