Induced ncRNAs allosterically modify RNA-binding proteins in cis to inhibit transcription.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
Nature (Impact Factor: 42.35). 08/2008; 454(7200):126-30. DOI: 10.1038/nature06992
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT With the recent recognition of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) flanking many genes, a central issue is to obtain a full understanding of their potential roles in regulated gene transcription programmes, possibly through different mechanisms. Here we show that an RNA-binding protein, TLS (for translocated in liposarcoma), serves as a key transcriptional regulatory sensor of DNA damage signals that, on the basis of its allosteric modulation by RNA, specifically binds to and inhibits CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 histone acetyltransferase activities on a repressed gene target, cyclin D1 (CCND1) in human cell lines. Recruitment of TLS to the CCND1 promoter to cause gene-specific repression is directed by single-stranded, low-copy-number ncRNA transcripts tethered to the 5' regulatory regions of CCND1 that are induced in response to DNA damage signals. Our data suggest that signal-induced ncRNAs localized to regulatory regions of transcription units can act cooperatively as selective ligands, recruiting and modulating the activities of distinct classes of RNA-binding co-regulators in response to specific signals, providing an unexpected ncRNA/RNA-binding protein-based strategy to integrate transcriptional programmes.

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    ABSTRACT: Recent genome-wide studies have revealed the presence of thousands of long non-protein-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), some of which may play critical roles in the cell. We have previously shown that a large number of lncRNAs show differential expression in response to interferon (IFN)α stimulation in primary human cells. Here, we show that a subset of IFN-induced lncRNAs are positioned in proximity of protein-coding IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). The majority of gene pairs originated from bidirectional promoters and showed positively correlated expression. We focused our analysis on a pair consisting of the known protein-coding ISG, BST2, and an un-studied putative lncRNA originating from the promoter region of BST2 in a divergent orientation. We showed that this transcript was a multi-exonic, polyadenylated long RNA that lacked protein-coding capacity. BST2 and the lncRNA were both induced in response to IFNα in diverse cell types. The induction of both genes was mediated through the JAK-STAT pathway, suggesting that IFN-stimulated response elements within the shared promoter activated the transcription of both genes. RNAi-mediated knock-down of the lncRNA resulted in down-regulation of BST2, and we could show that this down-regulation occurred at the level of transcription. Forced overexpression of this lncRNA, which we named BST2 IFN-Stimulated Positive Regulator (BISPR), resulted in up-regulation of BST2, indicating that the regulation of expression of BST2 by BISPR is mediated through interactions involving BISPR RNA itself, rather than the impact of its transcription from an adjacent locus. Importantly, upon IFN stimulation, transcriptional activation of BISPR preceded the induction of BST2, suggesting that expression of BISPR facilitated the initiation of transcription in its paired protein-coding gene. The lncRNA-mediated transcriptional regulation described in this study may help govern the expression of additional protein-coding RNAs involved in IFN response and other cellular processes.
    Frontiers in Immunology 01/2014; 5:676. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00676
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    ABSTRACT: Many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are expressed in cells but only a few have been well characterized. In these cases, lncRNAs have been shown to be key regulators of several cellular processes. Therefore, there is a great need to understand the function of more lncRNAs and their regulation in response to stimuli. Interferon (IFN) is a key molecule in the cellular antiviral response. IFN binding to its receptor activates transcription of several IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) that function as potent antivirals. In addition, several ISGs are positive or negative regulators of the IFN pathway. This is essential to ensure a strong antiviral response and a later return of the cell to homeostasis. As the ISGs described to date are coding genes, we sought to determine whether IFN also regulates the expression of long non-coding ISGs. To this aim, we used RNA sequencing to analyze the transcriptome of control and HuH7 cells treated with IFNα2. The results show that IFN-treatment regulates the expression of several unknown non-coding transcripts. We have validated two lncRNAs upregulated after treatment with different doses of type I IFNα2 in different cells or with type III IFNλ. These lncRNAs were also induced by influenza and vesicular stomatitis virus mutants unable to block the IFN response, but not by several wild-type lytic viruses tested. These lncRNA genes were named lncISG15 and lncBST2 as they are located close to ISGs ISG15 and BST2, respectively. Interestingly, inhibition experiments showed that lncBST2 is a positive regulator of BST2. Therefore lncBST2 has been renamed BISPR, from BST2 IFN-stimulated positive regulator. Our results may have therapeutic implications as lncBST2/BISPR, but also lncISG15 and their coding neighbors, are increased in cells infected with hepatitis C virus and in the liver of infected patients. These results allow us to hypothesize that several lncRNAs could be activated by IFN to control the potency of the antiviral IFN response.
    Frontiers in Immunology 01/2014; 5:655. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00655
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    ABSTRACT: Ageing is manifested as functional and structural deterioration that affects cell and tissue physiology. mRNA translation is a central cellular process, supplying cells with newly synthesized proteins. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in protein synthesis are not merely a corollary but rather a critical factor for the progression of ageing. Here we survey protein synthesis regulatory mechanisms and focus on the pre-translational regulation of the process exerted by non-coding RNA species, RNA binding proteins and alterations of intrinsic RNA properties. In addition, we discuss the tight relationship between mRNA translation and two central pathways that modulate ageing, namely the Insulin/IGF-1 and TOR signalling cascades. A thorough understanding of the complex interplay between protein synthesis regulation and ageing will provide critical insights into the pathogenesis of age-related disorders, associated with impaired proteostasis and protein quality control. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Ageing Research Reviews 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.arr.2014.12.008 · 7.63 Impact Factor


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