Induced ncRNAs allosterically modify RNA-binding proteins in cis to inhibit transcription.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
Nature (Impact Factor: 42.35). 08/2008; 454(7200):126-30. DOI: 10.1038/nature06992
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT With the recent recognition of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) flanking many genes, a central issue is to obtain a full understanding of their potential roles in regulated gene transcription programmes, possibly through different mechanisms. Here we show that an RNA-binding protein, TLS (for translocated in liposarcoma), serves as a key transcriptional regulatory sensor of DNA damage signals that, on the basis of its allosteric modulation by RNA, specifically binds to and inhibits CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 histone acetyltransferase activities on a repressed gene target, cyclin D1 (CCND1) in human cell lines. Recruitment of TLS to the CCND1 promoter to cause gene-specific repression is directed by single-stranded, low-copy-number ncRNA transcripts tethered to the 5' regulatory regions of CCND1 that are induced in response to DNA damage signals. Our data suggest that signal-induced ncRNAs localized to regulatory regions of transcription units can act cooperatively as selective ligands, recruiting and modulating the activities of distinct classes of RNA-binding co-regulators in response to specific signals, providing an unexpected ncRNA/RNA-binding protein-based strategy to integrate transcriptional programmes.

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    ABSTRACT: Fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS or FUS) is a multifunctional DNA-/RNA-binding protein that is involved in a variety of cellular functions including transcription, protein translation, RNA splicing, and transport. FUS was initially identified as a fusion oncoprotein, and thus, the early literature focused on the role of FUS in cancer. With the recent discoveries revealing the role of FUS in neurodegenerative diseases, namely amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration, there has been a renewed interest in elucidating the normal functions of FUS. It is not clear which, if any, endogenous functions of FUS are involved in disease pathogenesis. Here, we review what is currently known regarding the normal functions of FUS with an emphasis on DNA damage repair, RNA processing, and cellular stress response. Further, we discuss how ALS-causing mutations can potentially alter the role of FUS in these pathways, thereby contributing to disease pathogenesis.
    ASN Neuro 06/2014; 6(4). · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long non-coding (lnc) RNAs serve a multitude of functions in cells. NEAT1 RNA is a highly abundant 4 kb lncRNA in nuclei, and coincides with paraspeckles, nuclear domains that control sequestration of paraspeckle proteins. We examined NEAT1 RNA levels and its function in 3T3-L1 cells during differentiation to adipocytes. Levels of NEAT1 transcript, measured by RT-PCR, fluctuated in a temporal manner over the course of differentiation that suggested its role in alternative splicing of PPARγ mRNA, the major transcription factor driving adipogenesis. When cells were induced to differentiate by a media cocktail of insulin, dexamethasone, and isobutylmethyxanthine (IBMX) on Day 0, NEAT1 levels dropped on Day 4, when the PPARγ2 variant was spliced and when terminal differentiation occurs The appearance of PPARγ2 coordinates with the PPARγ1 variant to drive differentiation of adipocytes. SiRNA used to deplete NEAT1 resulted in the inability of cells to phosphorylate the serine/arginine-rich splicing protein, SRp40. SiRNA treatment for SRp40 resulted in dysregulation of PPARγ1 and, primarily, PPARγ2 mRNA levels. SRp40 associated with NEAT1, as shown by RNA-IP on days 0 and 8, but decreased on day 4, and concentrations increased over that of IgG control. Overexpression of SRp40 increased PPARγ2, but not γ1. Although lncRNA MALAT1 has been investigated in SR protein function, NEAT1 has not been shown to bind SR proteins for phosphorylation such that alternative splicing results. The ability of cells to increase phosphorylated SR proteins for PPARγ2 splicing suggests that fluxes in NEAT1 levels during adipogenesis regulate alternative splicing events.
    Genes. 12/2014; 5(4):1050-1063.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To report the genome-wide significant and/or replicable risk variants for alcohol dependence and explore their potential biological functions.Methods We searched in PubMed for all genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of alcohol dependence. The following three types of the results were extracted: genome-wide significant associations in an individual sample, the combined samples, or the meta-analysis (p < 5 × 10−8); top-ranked associations in an individual sample (p < 10−5) that were nominally replicated in other samples (p < .05); and nominally replicable associations across at least three independent GWAS samples (p < .05). These results were meta-analyzed. cis-eQTLs in human, RNA expression in rat and mouse brains and bioinformatics properties of all of these risk variants were analyzed.ResultsThe variants located within the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) cluster were significantly associated with alcohol dependence at the genome-wide level (p < 5 × 10−8) in at least one sample. Some associations with the ADH cluster were replicable across six independent GWAS samples. The variants located within or near SERINC2, KIAA0040, MREG–PECR or PKNOX2 were significantly associated with alcohol dependence at the genome-wide level (p < 5 × 10−8) in meta-analysis or combined samples, and these associations were replicable across at least one sample. The associations with the variants within NRD1, GPD1L–CMTM8 or MAP3K9–PCNX were suggestive (5 × 10−8 < p < 10−5) in some samples, and nominally replicable in other samples. The associations with the variants at HTR7 and OPA3 were nominally replicable across at least three independent GWAS samples (10−5 < p < .05). Some risk variants at the ADH cluster, SERINC2, KIAA0040, NRD1, and HTR7 had potential biological functions.Conclusion The most robust risk locus was the ADH cluster. SERINC2, KIAA0040, NRD1, and HTR7 were also likely to play important roles in alcohol dependence. PKNOX2, MREG, PECR, GPD1L, CMTM8, MAP3K9, PCNX, and OPA3 might play less important roles in risk for alcohol dependence based on the function analysis. This conclusion will significantly contribute to the post-GWAS follow-up studies on alcohol dependence. (Am J Addict 2014;23:526–539)
    American Journal on Addictions 11/2014; 23(6). · 1.74 Impact Factor


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