[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hand hygiene promotion interventions rarely result in sustained improvement, and an assessment of their impact on individual infection risk has been lacking. We sought to measure the impact of hand hygiene promotion on health care worker compliance and health care-associated infection risk among neonates.
We conducted an intervention study with a 9-month follow-up among all of the health care workers at the neonatal unit of the Children's Hospital, University of Geneva Hospitals, between March 2001 and February 2004. A multifaceted hand hygiene education program was introduced with compliance assessed during successive observational surveys. Health care-associated infections were prospectively monitored, and genotypic relatedness of bloodstream pathogens was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A comparison of observed hand hygiene compliance and infection rates before, during, and after the intervention was conducted.
A total of 5325 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed. Overall compliance improved gradually from 42% to 55% across study phases. This trend remained significant after adjustment for possible confounders and paralleled the measured increase in hand-rub consumption (from 66.6 to 89.2 L per 1000 patient-days). A 9-month follow-up survey showed sustained improvement in compliance (54%), notably with direct patient contact (49% at baseline vs 64% at follow-up). Improved compliance was independently associated with infection risk reduction among very low birth weight neonates. Bacteremia caused by clonally related pathogens markedly decreased after the intervention.
Hand hygiene promotion, guided by health care workers' perceptions, identification of the dynamics of bacterial contamination of health care workers' hands, and performance feedback, is effective in sustaining compliance improvement and is independently associated with infection risk reduction among high-risk neonates.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess quantitatively the clinical impact of using an alcohol-based handrub (ABHR) in the hospital environment, measuring impact as the incidence of new, nosocomial isolates of drug-resistant organisms.
An observational survey from 1998 to 2003 comparing the first 3 years of no ABHR use with the 3 years following, when an ABHR was provided for hand hygiene.
An inner-city, tertiary-care medical center.
At baseline, an antimicrobial soap with 0.3% triclosan was provided for staff hand hygiene. The intervention was placement in all inpatient and all outpatient clinic rooms of wall-mounted dispensers of an ABHR with 62.5% ethyl alcohol. Data were collected on change in the incidence of three drug-resistant bacteria.
During the 6 years of the survey, all new, nosocomially acquired isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea were recorded. On comparison of the first 3 years with the final 3 years, there was a 21% decrease in new, nosocomially acquired MRSA (90 to 71 isolates per year; P = .01) and a 41% decrease in VRE (41 to 24 isolates per year; P < .001). The incidence of new isolates of C. difficile was essentially unchanged.
In the 3 years following implementation of an ABHR, this hospital experienced the value of reductions in the incidence of nosocomially acquired drug-resistant bacteria. These reductions provide clinical validation of the recent CDC recommendation that ABHRs be the primary choice for hand decontamination.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 07/2005; 26(7):650-3. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the roles of "colonization pressure," work load or patient severity in patient acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in intensive care units (ICUs).
Prospectively collected data from October 1996 through December 1998.
A 12-bed medical ICU in a university-affiliated general hospital.
Patients with risk factors for MRSA admitted to the ICU were screened within 72 hours of admission and weekly thereafter. MRSA was considered imported if detected during the first 72 hours of admission and nosocomial if detected only thereafter. Three screening strategies were used on admission during three consecutive periods.
The unit of time chosen for measurements was the week. Weekly colonization pressure (WCP) was defined as the number of MRSA-carrier patient-days/total number of patient-days. Patient severity (number of deaths, Simplified Acute Physiologic Score [SAPS] II), work load (number of admis sions, Omega score), and colonization pressure (number of MRSA carriers at the time of admission, WCP) were compared with the number of MRSA-nosocomial cases during the following week.
Of the 1,016 patients admitted over 116 weeks, 691 (68%) were screened. MRSA was imported in 91 (8.9%) admitted patients (13.1% of screened patients) and nosocomial in 46 (4.5%). The number of MRSA-nosocomial cases was correlated to the SAPS II (P=.007), the Omega 3 score (P=.007), the number of MRSA-imported cases (P=.01), WCP (P<.0001), and the screening period (P<.0001). In multivariate analysis, WCP was the only independent predictive factor for MRSA acquisition (P=.0002). Above 30% of WCP, the risk of acquisition of MRSA was approximately fivefold times higher (relative risk, 4.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.9; P<.0001).
Acquisition of MRSA in ICU patients is strongly and independently influenced by colonization pressure.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 12/2000; 21(11):718-23. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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