Cerebral vasculitis and unilateral sixth-nerve palsy in acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis
ABSTRACT Cerebral vasculitis associated with acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) is rare. A 13-year-old girl presented with severe headache, vomiting, oedema and macroscopic haematuria. There was a history of upper respiratory infection 2 weeks previously. A diagnosis of APSGN was made. On admission, she was normotensive and biochemically well balanced. She experienced a tonic-clonic seizure 2 hours later. An MRI brain scan demonstrated multiple areas of abnormal signal intensity in the cerebral and cerebellar white matter, and subarachnoid haemorrhage consistent with vasculitis was diagnosed. A sixth-nerve palsy developed on the 6th day of admission. An elevated anti-streptolysin titre and low serum C3 complement level together with typical features on renal biopsy supported the diagnosis of APSGN. All clinical and laboratory abnormalities improved with corticosteroid therapy, pulse methyl-prednisolone. APSGN can present with central nervous system abnormalities without hypertension, uraemia and electrolyte disturbance.
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ABSTRACT: Reversible posterior leucoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) may develop in patients with renal insufficiency, hypertension, and immunosuppression, and is managed by prompt antihypertensive and anticonvulsant treatment. Four patients with renal insufficiency and fluid overload associated with Wegener's granulomatosis (one patient) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (three patients) are described, whose clinical picture and neuroimaging indicated RPLS. All patients had headache, seizures, visual abnormalities, and transient motor deficit, and were hypertensive at the onset of the symptoms. Head computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging showed predominantly posterior signal abnormalities, which were more conspicuous on T(2) weighted spin echo images than on CT scan. All patients had some form of cytotoxic treatment shortly before the syndrome developed, and dramatically responded to blood pressure control and anticonvulsant treatment. In two patients with SLE, dialysis was required for renal insufficiency. Follow up neuroimaging studies showed almost complete resolution of signal abnormalities, and suggested that RPLS was associated with cerebral oedema without concomitant infarction. The treatment of hypertension and neurotoxic condition such as uraemia appears of primary importance, while immunosuppressive treatment may cause further damage of the blood-brain barrier.Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 06/2001; 60(5):534-7. DOI:10.1136/ard.60.5.534 · 9.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neurological complications in acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) have been traditionally attributed to hypertensive encephalopathy. A 9-year-old girl with biopsy-documented APSGN developed seizures at a time she was normotensive and biochemically well balanced. Computed tomography of her brain was consistent with vasculitis, a finding which was also clinically supported by apparent vasculitic involvement of other organ systems. All clinical, laboratory and radiological abnormalities resolved with recovery from the APSGN. We suggest that on rare occasions neurological complications in APSGN may result from involvement of the central nervous system in multiorgan transient vasculitis.Pediatric Nephrology 05/1993; 7(2):194-5. DOI:10.1007/BF00864396 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The following is a case study involving a 13-year-old girl who presented initial symptoms of an upper respiratory infection. One week later she experienced a short seizure and hours later a grand mal seizure. MRI examination of the brain demonstrated multiple changing abnormal foci of increased density in white and gray matter suggestive of a vasculitic inflammatory pattern. As a result of proteinuria and red cell casts on urinalysis, a renal biopsy was performed resulting in a diagnosis of acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN). We concluded on the basis of the MRI that vasculitis was secondary to APSGN. The following paper is a description of our findings in this case and a review of the literature supporting this new interpretation of CNS disease due to APSGN.American Journal of Nephrology 02/1997; 17(1):89-92. DOI:10.1159/000169077 · 2.65 Impact Factor