The epidemiological and clinical characteristics and nutritional development of infants with acute diarrhoea, in north-eastern Brazil.
ABSTRACT In order to assess the epidemiological and clinical characteristics and changing nutritional status of infants suffering from acute diarrhoea, 103 infants with such diarrhoea and the same number of age-matched controls were investigated at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte's Paediatric Hospital, in north-eastern Brazil. Each child with diarrhoea was given oral rehydration or, in the severe cases, intravenous rehydration. Each subject was checked for enteropathogens and his or her weight, height and weight-for-height, weight-for-age and height-for-age Z-scores were evaluated immediately after any clinical dehydration had been corrected and 30 days later. In the infants aged <6 months, a diet that included foods other than breast milk (odds ratio=9.41), including one in which breast milk was supplemented with other foods (odds ratio=4.69), was found to be statistically associated with diarrhoea. The enteropathogens found most commonly in the children with diarrhoea were rotavirus (36.9%), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (11.6%) and Shigella (11.6%). Just four (5.2%) of the 77 cases with adequate follow-up showed persistent diarrhoea. At presentation or as soon as any clinical dehydration had been corrected, the infants with diarrhoea had significantly lower weights and weight-for-height and weight-for-age Z-scores than the controls. Thirty days later, however, the weight-for-height and weight-for-age Z-scores of the cases had increased significantly, to the point when they were not significantly different from the baseline values for the controls. The negative consequences of diarrhoea on weight-for-height and weight-for-age Z-scores and the recovery of these parameters after 30 days with rehydration reflect the acute but reversible influence of diarrhoea on infant nutritional status.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Fagundes Neto Ulysses, May 27, 2014
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Notwithstanding significant advancement in the understanding of pathogenesis and management, diarrheal illnesses remain one of the principal causes of global childhood mortality and morbidity. Infections account for most illnesses, with pathogens employing ingenious mechanisms to establish disease. In 2002, an interdisciplinary program "Populations et al. Espaces à Risques SANitaires" (PERSAN) was set up under the patronage of the Development Research Institute (IRD). Focused on health in Cameroon's urban environment, the program mainly sought to identify diarrhea risk factors in Yaoundé. So for, a cross-sectional epidemiological study in children aged 6-59 months was carried out using a standardized protocol. The survey was initiated in 2002 and conducted during April to June in the year 2005. 3,034 stool samples were collected from children in twenty neighbourhoods in Yaoundé and examined at the Epidemiology and Public Health Laboratory of the Cameroon Pasteur Institute. About 60% of the patients were aged less than two years and 52% were male. Among the 437 patients with the diarrheal disease, 260 were found to be of infectious etiology, i.e. micro organism was detected in 59.5% of the cases. Out of which, 10 (03.8%), 96 (36.9%), and 154 (59.2%) were respectively caused by pathogenic viruses, pathogenic bacteria and pathogenic parasites. Higher prevalence was found in overcrowded and under supply spontaneous settlement (78.4%) than in less crowded and formal residential settlement (21.5%). Etiologic data on diarrheal diseases and their spatial distribution are important tools for public health management and control strategic planning.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 01/2009; 5(4):213-29. DOI:10.3390/ijerph5040213 · 2.06 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In Ethiopia, evidence is lacking about maternal care-taking and environmental risk factors that contribute to acute diarrhoea and the case management of diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors and to understand the management of acute diarrhoea. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for interviewing mothers of 440 children in a prospective, matched, case-control study at the University of Gondar Referral and Teaching Hospital in Gondar, Ethiopia. Results of multivariate analysis demonstrated that children who were breastfed and not completely weaned and mothers who were farmers were protective factors; risk factors for diarrhoea included sharing drinking-water and introducing supplemental foods. Children presented with acute diarrhoea for 3.9 days with 4.3 stools per day. Mothers usually did not increase breastmilk and other fluids during diarrhoea episodes and generally did not take children with diarrhoea to traditional healers. Incorporating messages about the prevention and treatment of acute diarrhoea into child-health interventions will help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with this disease.Journal of Health Population and Nutrition 06/2010; 28(3):253-63. DOI:10.3329/jhpn.v28i3.5552 · 1.39 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Intestinal Escherichia coli pathogens are major causes of diarrhoeal disease in children under five years of age worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of E. coli pathotypes with childhood diarrhoea in Colombia. A case-control study was conducted in 815 samples from children younger than five years of age in Cartagena, Colombia (466 cases and 349 controls). Controls were randomly selected 1:1 to cases, to obtain 349 cases and 349 controls. This study revealed that 27 (7.44%) cases and 12 (3.43%) controls were positives for any of the E. coli pathotypes. The difference observed was statistically significant indicating that E. coli pathotypes were associated with cases of childhood diarrhoea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) was the most common pathotype associated with childhood diarrhoea. Additional E. coli pathotypes were also identified. We conclude that after the adjustment by age, sex and socioeconomic stratum, the odds ratio obtained by logistic regression shows an association between infection with ETEC and childhood diarrhoea.The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 05/2013; 7(5):372-81. DOI:10.3855/jidc.2667 · 1.27 Impact Factor