Increased organophosphate scavenging in a butyrylcholinesterase mutant
ABSTRACT Nicotiana benthamiana plant lines expressing a reengineered human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with enhanced cocaine hydrolase activity were created. Subsequent purification and biochemical analysis revealed that compared to wild-type butyrylcholinesterase, the cocaine hydrolase displayed increased affinity to the organophosphate (OP) pesticides paraoxon (6.8 4x 10(-10)M vs. 1.11 x 10(-8)M) and malaoxon (9.81 x 10(-8)M vs. 5.99 x 10(-7)M). Furthermore, the cocaine hydrolase retained identical anticholinesterase binding profiles for all other compounds tested. Thus we have demonstrated a potential large-scale production platform for a multivalent antidote for cocaine and anticholinesterase poisoning.
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ABSTRACT: The biological function of the cholinesterase (ChE) enzymes has been studied since the beginning of the twentieth century. Acetylcholinesterase plays a key role in the modulation of neuromuscular impulse transmission in vertebrates, while in invertebrates pseudo cholinesterases are preeminently represented. During the last 40 years, awareness of the role of ChEs role in regulating non-neuromuscular cell-to-cell interactions has been increasing such as the ones occurring during gamete interaction and embryonic development. Moreover, ChE activities are responsible for other relevant biological events, including regulation of the balance between cell proliferation and cell death, as well as the modulation of cell adhesion and cell migration. Understanding the mechanisms of the regulation of these events can help us foresee the possible impact of neurotoxic substances on the environmental and human health.Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 04/2012; 5:54. DOI:10.3389/fnmol.2012.00054
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ABSTRACT: Human serum and recombinant butyrylcholinesterase (rHuBChE) are the most advanced prophylactics against organophosphate (OP) toxicity due to nerve agent or insecticide exposure. For ethical reasons, such potential multi-use treatments cannot be tested in humans and will require extensive testing in animal models and the "Animal Rule" 21 (21 CFR 601.90) for regulatory approval. This will involve multiple injections of rHuBChE into heterologous animals, e.g. macaques, rodents with inevitable immunogenicity and subsequent elimination of the enzyme on repeat injections. In order to accurately assess pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of a candidate rBChE in an "antibody free" system, a homologous macaque (Ma) model has been developed. In these studies, macaques received single or multiple intravenous injections of native MaBChE as well as unmodified or PEG-conjugated forms of rMaBChE produced in CHO cells. Compared to the poor plasma retention of unmodified rBChE (MRT: <10h), three injections of 1.5-2.3mg/kg of PEG-conjugated tetrameric rBChE resulted in high circulatory stability (MRT: >134h) and lack of immunogenicity similar to native MaBChE. PEG-conjugation of the monomeric rMaBChE form also exhibited pharmacokinetic profiles comparable to the tetrameric form (MRT: >113h). However, despite the increased bioavailability of PEG-rBChE, antigenicity studies using sandwich ELISA showed that while macaque BChE was not immunogenic in macaques, PEGylation of rMaBChE did not prevent binding to anti-BChE antibodies, suggesting PEGylation may not be sufficient to mask non-human epitopes on rBChE. This homologous model can provide necessary preclinical protection data for the use of PEG-rHuBChE in humans and bodes well for a safe and efficacious CHO-derived rHuBChE therapeutic.Chemico-biological interactions 03/2010; 187(1-3):279-86. DOI:10.1016/j.cbi.2010.02.042
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ABSTRACT: Concerns about the safety of paralytics such as succinylcholine to facilitate endotracheal intubation limit their use in prehospital and emergency department settings. The ability to rapidly reverse paralysis and restore respiratory drive would increase the safety margin of an agent, thus permitting the pursuit of alternative intubation strategies. In particular, patients who carry genetic or acquired deficiency of butyrylcholinesterase, the serum enzyme responsible for succinylcholine hydrolysis, are susceptible to succinylcholine-induced apnea, which manifests as paralysis, lasting hours beyond the normally brief half-life of succinylcholine. We hypothesized that intravenous administration of plant-derived recombinant BChE, which also prevents mortality in nerve agent poisoning, would rapidly reverse the effects of succinylcholine. Recombinant butyrylcholinesterase was produced in transgenic plants and purified. Further analysis involved murine and guinea pig models of succinylcholine toxicity. Animals were treated with lethal and sublethal doses of succinylcholine followed by administration of butyrylcholinesterase or vehicle. In both animal models vital signs and overall survival at specified intervals post succinylcholine administration were assessed. Purified plant-derived recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase can hydrolyze succinylcholine in vitro. Challenge of mice with an LD100 of succinylcholine followed by BChE administration resulted in complete prevention of respiratory inhibition and concomitant mortality. Furthermore, experiments in symptomatic guinea pigs demonstrated extremely rapid succinylcholine detoxification with complete amelioration of symptoms and no apparent complications. Recombinant plant-derived butyrylcholinesterase was capable of counteracting and reversing apnea in two complementary models of lethal succinylcholine toxicity, completely preventing mortality. This study of a protein antidote validates the feasibility of protection and treatment of overdose from succinylcholine as well as other biologically active butyrylcholinesterase substrates.PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e59159. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0059159