Antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. methanolic fruit extract.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119 Haryana, India.
Acta Pharmaceutica (Impact Factor: 1.03). 07/2008; 58(2):215-20. DOI: 10.2478/v10007-008-0008-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used as an abortifacient and to treat constipation, oedema, bacterial infections, cancer and diabetes. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant showed the presence of large amounts of phenolics and flavonoids. Subsequent quantification showed the presence of 0.74% (m/m) phenolics (calculated as gallic acid) and 0.13% (m/m) flavonoids calculated as catechin equivalents per 100 g of fresh mass. The presence of phenolic compounds prompted us to evaluate its antioxidant activity. In the present study, methanolic fruit extract of C. colocynthis was screened to evaluate its free radical scavenging effect. The highest antioxidant and free radical scavenging ability of the fruit extract was observed at a concentration of 2500 microg mL(-1).

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The roots, leaves, flowers, stems and seeds of Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense are often used in treatment of human diseases such as hemorrhage, blood congestion and inflammation. Focusing our attention on natural and bioavailable sources of antioxidants and anti-inflammation, we undertook to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense used as a folk medicine in Korea. Methods: The extracts of the leaves, stems, flowers, seeds and roots from C. japonicum var. ussuriense were prepared by extracting with water or 80% ethanol. Total flavonoids and polyphenols were measured by a colorimetric assay. The free radical scavenging activity of the extract was analyzed by the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl), ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and Griess reagent assay. An oxidative product of nitric oxide (NO), was measured in the culture medium by the Griess reaction. The level of prostaglandin () was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were measured by Western blot analysis. Results: Total flavonoid and polyphenol amounts of the leaves (CLE) and flowers (CFE) showed higher than those of the seed extract (CSE), stem extract (CSTE) and roots (CRE). CLE and CFE also showed the high antioxidant activities such as DPPH, NO-like and ABTS radical scavenging activity. An antioxidant activities of these water extracts showed higher than those of 80% ethanol extracts. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of CLE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. CLE significantly suppressed the levels of the inflammatory mediators such as NO and prostaglandin () in dose dependant. Furthermore, the levels of iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions were markedly suppressed by the treatment with CLE extract in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: These results suggest that CLE water extract has a higher anoxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, these properties may contribute to the oxidative and inflammatory related disease care.
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    ABSTRACT: Centella asiatica L. (Apiaceae) has various pharmaceutical properties and has been widely used for treating various ailments in Ayurvead. The present study was carried out to identify the phytochemicals present in the ethanolic extract of Centella asiatica L. (Apiaceae) leaves using both qualitative and quantitative screening methods, GC-MS and LC-MS analysis. The ethanolic extract was also subjected to in vitro free radical scavenging and chelating activity. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of triterpenoids, saponins, glycosides, sterols and alkaloids. The major components identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis were Methyl pyromeconic acid (RT: 5.183), Methoxy vinyl phenol (RT: 8.617), 3',5'-Dimethoxyacetophenone (RT: 11.867), Beta-D-Ribofuranoside (RT: 10.675), Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acid (RT: 12.825), 5-methoxy-2,2,8,8-tetramethyl-acetate (RT: 25.733) and Nobiletin (RT: 27.275). The major components identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis were Maltol, 3', 5’-Dimethoxyacetophenone, Papyriogenin A, Asiatic acid, Asiaticoside, Madecassoside and Madecassic acid. Centella asiatica ethanolic extract effectively scavenges hydroxyl (OH•), superoxide anion (O2•–), DPPH•, nitric oxide, ABTS•+ and chelates in a concentration-dependent manner (12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml). The LC50 values for in vitro toxicity and haemolytic activity was found to 69.17 ±3.2 and 476.19 ±5.9 µg/ml, respectively. The present study indicates the presence of strong antioxidant, free radical scavenging and chelating properties in the ethanolic extract of Centella asiatica L. (Apiaceae) leaves.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 11/2014; 29(1):328-334. · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Objective: To report the antioxidant activity, phenolic acid profile of the Azima tetracantha methanolic extract and find the correlation between the total phenolic content and their relative antioxidant activity Methods: The total antioxidant activity, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging of A. tetracantha methanol extract was evaluated by adopting various standard methods. Total phenolic content was estimated from dried methanolic extract and the phenolic acids in the extract were identified by HPLC. Results: The methanolic extract of A. tetracantha showed free radical scavenging in a concentration dependant manner. The studies showed that the extract possess high free radical scavenging property, especially against hydroxyl radicals (67.61±0.42%). The correlation analysis results showed linear relation between phenolics content of methanolic extract and antioxidant assays (R2=0.97, 0.94, 0.99 and 0.98, significance at P<.0.001). The phenolic acid profile showed the presence of both benzoic acid and cinnamic acid derivatives, well known for their antioxidant potential. Conclusion: The current observations suggested that the methanol extract of A. tetracantha exhibited multiple antioxidant activities, by scavenging free radicals. So, it can be concluded that the extract is a source of natural antioxidant, suggesting its traditional use as a rejuvenating agent.
    International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 10/2014; 6(9):347- 351. · 1.59 Impact Factor

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