Comparison of the effects of open and endovascular aortic aneurysm repair on long-term renal function using chronic kidney disease staging based on glomerular filtration rate.

The University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, University Medical Center, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA.
Journal of Vascular Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.88). 06/2008; 47(6):1141-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvs.2008.01.039
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT It has been suggested that endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in concert with serial contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) surveillance adversely impacts renal function. Our primary objectives were to assess serial renal function in patients undergoing EVAR and open repair (OR) and to evaluate the relative effects of method of repair on renal function.
A thorough retrospective chart review was performed on 223 consecutive patients (103 EVAR, 120 OR) who underwent abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Demographics, pertinent risk factors, CT scan number, morbidity, and mortality were recorded in a database. Baseline, 30- and 90-day, and most recent glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were calculated. Mean GFR changes and renal function decline (using Chronic Kidney Disease [CKD] staging and Kaplan-Meier plot) were determined. EVAR and OR patients were compared. CKD prevalence (>or=stage 3, National Kidney Foundation) was determined before repair and in longitudinal follow-up. Observed-expected (OE) ratios for CKD were calculated for EVAR and OR patients by comparing observed CKD prevalence with the expected, age-adjusted prevalence.
The only baseline difference between EVAR and OR cohorts was female gender (4% vs 12%, P = .029). Thirty-day GFR was significantly reduced in OR patients (P = .047), but it recovered and there were no differences in mean GFR at a mean follow-up of 23.2 months. However, 18% to 39% of patients in the EVAR and OR groups developed significant renal function decline over time depending on its definition. OE ratios for CKD prevalence were greater in AAA patients at baseline (OE 1.28-3.23, depending upon age group). During follow-up, the prevalence and severity of CKD increased regardless of method of repair (OE 1.8-9.0). Deterioration of renal function was independently associated with age >70 years in all patients (RR 2.92) and performance of EVAR compared with OR (RR 3.5) during long-term follow-up.
Compared with EVAR, OR was associated with a significant but transient fall in GFR at 30 days. Renal function decline after AAA repair was common, regardless of method, especially in patients >70 years of age. However, the renal function decline was significantly greater by Kaplan-Meier analysis in EVAR than OR patients during long-term follow-up. More aggressive strategies to monitor and preserve renal function after AAA repair are warranted.

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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates whether this practice is supported by multicenter prospectively collected data. Currently, open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair (OPEN) is preferred over endovascular repair (EVAR) in patients with chronic renal insufficiency because of the concern that the contrast load used for EVAR may result in postoperative dialysis. Patients who underwent EVAR and OPEN for infrarenal AAA were identified in the NSQIP database from 2005 to 2010. Preoperative renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. Patients with chronic renal insufficiency were further stratified into 2 different groups: moderate (eGFR = 30-60 mL/min) and severe (eGFR <30 mL/min) renal dysfunction. Multivariate regression model was used for data analysis. We identified 13,191 patients who underwent AAA repair: 9877 patients underwent EVAR and 3314 underwent OPEN. Forty percent of patients had eGFR of less than 60 mL/min. OPEN in patients with moderate renal dysfunction resulted in significantly higher mortality, cardiovascular events, and combined outcomes. However, in patients with severe renal dysfunction, these outcomes were similarly high in both OPEN and EVAR. Most importantly, OPEN in patients with moderate renal dysfunction resulted in 5.2 times higher risk of dialysis. Contrary to current practice, and despite the use of contrast, EVAR should be the first choice in patients with moderate renal dysfunction if they have the appropriate anatomy. Higher threshold for AAA repair with either OPEN or EVAR should be applied in patients with severe renal dysfunction because postoperative complications were significantly high with either approach.
    Annals of surgery 09/2013; 258(3):394-9. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Deterioration of renal function after major vascular surgery is an important complication, and may vary between patients undergoing endovascular (EVAR) or open surgical (OR) repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The objective was to determine the impact of OR and EVAR on renal function after 5 years. METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of data collected prospectively from the Dutch Randomized Endovascular Aneurysm Management (DREAM) trial. Five years after surgery, creatinine levels were available for 189 patients (94 after OR and 95 after EVAR). The severity of renal disease was staged using the chronic kidney disease classification of the US National Kidney Foundation clinical guidelines. RESULTS: Using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) for the entire group declined over time, with a mean(s.d.) preoperative value of 80·0(7·6) ml per min per 1·73 m(2) compared with 75·7(9·7) ml per min per 1·73 m(2) after 5 years (mean difference 4·2 (95 per cent confidence interval 3·2 to 5·3) ml per min per 1·73 m(2) ; P < 0·001). Five years after surgery, the mean eGFR (CKD-EPI equation) was not significantly different between the OR and EVAR groups: 76·3(9·3) versus 75·1(10·0) ml per min per 1·73 m(2) (mean difference 1·2 (-1·6 to 3·9) ml per min per 1·73 m(2) ; P = 0·410). CONCLUSION: Renal function 5 years after OR and EVAR for AAA was similar. Neither surgical procedure accelerated the loss of renal function. Registration number: NCT00421330 (
    British Journal of Surgery 10/2013; 100(11):1465-1470. · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate long-term renal outcomes after open type IV thoracoabdominal aneurysm (TAAA) repair. Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database of consecutive operated non-ruptured type IV TAAAs (2007-2011). Renal function was analysed by serum creatinine concentration, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) stage. The primary outcome was the change in creatinine concentration from before surgery to defined time points after surgery: peak postoperative; discharge; at follow-up (>1 year postoperatively). Secondary outcomes were change in eGFR, change in KDOQI stage, dialysis requirement, and 30-day mortality. Between 2007 and 2011, 53 open type IV TAAA repairs were performed. Median creatinine levels significantly increased in the immediate postoperative period, but returned to baseline by discharge. Thirteen patients (28.2%) had an improvement in follow-up eGFR of at least 20% compared with pre-operative eGFR or improved by one KDOQI stage. Twelve patients (26.1%) had a decline in eGFR of at least 20% or one KDOQI stage at follow-up. Three patients (7.5%) required temporary dialysis and one patient (1.9%) required permanent dialysis. The 30-day mortality was 1.9%. This study demonstrates acceptable renal outcomes following open type IV TAAA repair. Open type IV repair remains the standard against which newer techniques should be compared.
    European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery: the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery 09/2013; · 2.92 Impact Factor


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May 17, 2014