Article

Comparison of the effects of open and endovascular aortic aneurysm repair on long-term renal function using chronic kidney disease staging based on glomerular filtration rate.

The University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, University Medical Center, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA.
Journal of Vascular Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.88). 06/2008; 47(6):1141-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvs.2008.01.039
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT It has been suggested that endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in concert with serial contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) surveillance adversely impacts renal function. Our primary objectives were to assess serial renal function in patients undergoing EVAR and open repair (OR) and to evaluate the relative effects of method of repair on renal function.
A thorough retrospective chart review was performed on 223 consecutive patients (103 EVAR, 120 OR) who underwent abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Demographics, pertinent risk factors, CT scan number, morbidity, and mortality were recorded in a database. Baseline, 30- and 90-day, and most recent glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were calculated. Mean GFR changes and renal function decline (using Chronic Kidney Disease [CKD] staging and Kaplan-Meier plot) were determined. EVAR and OR patients were compared. CKD prevalence (>or=stage 3, National Kidney Foundation) was determined before repair and in longitudinal follow-up. Observed-expected (OE) ratios for CKD were calculated for EVAR and OR patients by comparing observed CKD prevalence with the expected, age-adjusted prevalence.
The only baseline difference between EVAR and OR cohorts was female gender (4% vs 12%, P = .029). Thirty-day GFR was significantly reduced in OR patients (P = .047), but it recovered and there were no differences in mean GFR at a mean follow-up of 23.2 months. However, 18% to 39% of patients in the EVAR and OR groups developed significant renal function decline over time depending on its definition. OE ratios for CKD prevalence were greater in AAA patients at baseline (OE 1.28-3.23, depending upon age group). During follow-up, the prevalence and severity of CKD increased regardless of method of repair (OE 1.8-9.0). Deterioration of renal function was independently associated with age >70 years in all patients (RR 2.92) and performance of EVAR compared with OR (RR 3.5) during long-term follow-up.
Compared with EVAR, OR was associated with a significant but transient fall in GFR at 30 days. Renal function decline after AAA repair was common, regardless of method, especially in patients >70 years of age. However, the renal function decline was significantly greater by Kaplan-Meier analysis in EVAR than OR patients during long-term follow-up. More aggressive strategies to monitor and preserve renal function after AAA repair are warranted.

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Deterioration of renal function after major vascular surgery is an important complication, and may vary between patients undergoing endovascular (EVAR) or open surgical (OR) repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The objective was to determine the impact of OR and EVAR on renal function after 5 years. METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of data collected prospectively from the Dutch Randomized Endovascular Aneurysm Management (DREAM) trial. Five years after surgery, creatinine levels were available for 189 patients (94 after OR and 95 after EVAR). The severity of renal disease was staged using the chronic kidney disease classification of the US National Kidney Foundation clinical guidelines. RESULTS: Using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) for the entire group declined over time, with a mean(s.d.) preoperative value of 80·0(7·6) ml per min per 1·73 m(2) compared with 75·7(9·7) ml per min per 1·73 m(2) after 5 years (mean difference 4·2 (95 per cent confidence interval 3·2 to 5·3) ml per min per 1·73 m(2) ; P < 0·001). Five years after surgery, the mean eGFR (CKD-EPI equation) was not significantly different between the OR and EVAR groups: 76·3(9·3) versus 75·1(10·0) ml per min per 1·73 m(2) (mean difference 1·2 (-1·6 to 3·9) ml per min per 1·73 m(2) ; P = 0·410). CONCLUSION: Renal function 5 years after OR and EVAR for AAA was similar. Neither surgical procedure accelerated the loss of renal function. Registration number: NCT00421330 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov).
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