Comparison of the effects of open and endovascular aortic aneurysm repair on long-term renal function using chronic kidney disease staging based on glomerular filtration rate

The University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, University Medical Center, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA.
Journal of Vascular Surgery (Impact Factor: 3.02). 06/2008; 47(6):1141-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvs.2008.01.039
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT It has been suggested that endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in concert with serial contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) surveillance adversely impacts renal function. Our primary objectives were to assess serial renal function in patients undergoing EVAR and open repair (OR) and to evaluate the relative effects of method of repair on renal function.
A thorough retrospective chart review was performed on 223 consecutive patients (103 EVAR, 120 OR) who underwent abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Demographics, pertinent risk factors, CT scan number, morbidity, and mortality were recorded in a database. Baseline, 30- and 90-day, and most recent glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were calculated. Mean GFR changes and renal function decline (using Chronic Kidney Disease [CKD] staging and Kaplan-Meier plot) were determined. EVAR and OR patients were compared. CKD prevalence (>or=stage 3, National Kidney Foundation) was determined before repair and in longitudinal follow-up. Observed-expected (OE) ratios for CKD were calculated for EVAR and OR patients by comparing observed CKD prevalence with the expected, age-adjusted prevalence.
The only baseline difference between EVAR and OR cohorts was female gender (4% vs 12%, P = .029). Thirty-day GFR was significantly reduced in OR patients (P = .047), but it recovered and there were no differences in mean GFR at a mean follow-up of 23.2 months. However, 18% to 39% of patients in the EVAR and OR groups developed significant renal function decline over time depending on its definition. OE ratios for CKD prevalence were greater in AAA patients at baseline (OE 1.28-3.23, depending upon age group). During follow-up, the prevalence and severity of CKD increased regardless of method of repair (OE 1.8-9.0). Deterioration of renal function was independently associated with age >70 years in all patients (RR 2.92) and performance of EVAR compared with OR (RR 3.5) during long-term follow-up.
Compared with EVAR, OR was associated with a significant but transient fall in GFR at 30 days. Renal function decline after AAA repair was common, regardless of method, especially in patients >70 years of age. However, the renal function decline was significantly greater by Kaplan-Meier analysis in EVAR than OR patients during long-term follow-up. More aggressive strategies to monitor and preserve renal function after AAA repair are warranted.

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    • "This is further compounded by the number of computerised tomography (CT) examinations undertaken both before and after EVAR; each of which exposes the patient to a further dose of ionizing radiation. Indeed, a recent study estimated the average EVAR patient undergoes five CT examinations with intravenous contrast medium within their first 2 years [11]. In addition, clinicians are also undertaking increasingly complex EVAR procedures in patients with less favourable aortic and iliac anatomy, which require longer fluoroscopic screening times. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives With increasing experience, endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been extended to patients with less suitable aorto-iliac anatomy in an attempt to reduce peri-operative mortality. However, more complex EVAR procedures may take longer and can result in higher rates of complications, additional interventional procedures and more frequent radiological imaging, which may offset some of the benefit. This study determined the radiation burden for standard EVAR, as determined by the EVAR-1 trial criteria, and more complex EVAR. Methods A total of 123 elective patients aged >60, with aneurysms >5.5 cm who received a bifurcated stent-graft were allocated into a group based on whether or not they fulfilled strict EVAR-1 trial criteria. The mean radiation dose was calculated for each group, together with the additional radiation burden from routine pre- and post-EVAR CT examinations and pre-EVAR iliac artery embolisation. Results Patients not meeting the EVAR-1 trial criteria had significantly longer fluoroscopic screening times and higher radiation doses. The radiation burden in all patients was higher following exposure from routine CT examinations and following pre-EVAR iliac artery embolisation. Conclusion Whilst the radiation from standard EVAR is acceptable, more complicated and challenging EVARs, accompanied with additional radiological investigations and procedures, can significantly increase the radiation burden.
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