Article

Comparison of the effects of open and endovascular aortic aneurysm repair on long-term renal function using chronic kidney disease staging based on glomerular filtration rate.

The University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, University Medical Center, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA.
Journal of Vascular Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.98). 06/2008; 47(6):1141-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvs.2008.01.039
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT It has been suggested that endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in concert with serial contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) surveillance adversely impacts renal function. Our primary objectives were to assess serial renal function in patients undergoing EVAR and open repair (OR) and to evaluate the relative effects of method of repair on renal function.
A thorough retrospective chart review was performed on 223 consecutive patients (103 EVAR, 120 OR) who underwent abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Demographics, pertinent risk factors, CT scan number, morbidity, and mortality were recorded in a database. Baseline, 30- and 90-day, and most recent glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were calculated. Mean GFR changes and renal function decline (using Chronic Kidney Disease [CKD] staging and Kaplan-Meier plot) were determined. EVAR and OR patients were compared. CKD prevalence (>or=stage 3, National Kidney Foundation) was determined before repair and in longitudinal follow-up. Observed-expected (OE) ratios for CKD were calculated for EVAR and OR patients by comparing observed CKD prevalence with the expected, age-adjusted prevalence.
The only baseline difference between EVAR and OR cohorts was female gender (4% vs 12%, P = .029). Thirty-day GFR was significantly reduced in OR patients (P = .047), but it recovered and there were no differences in mean GFR at a mean follow-up of 23.2 months. However, 18% to 39% of patients in the EVAR and OR groups developed significant renal function decline over time depending on its definition. OE ratios for CKD prevalence were greater in AAA patients at baseline (OE 1.28-3.23, depending upon age group). During follow-up, the prevalence and severity of CKD increased regardless of method of repair (OE 1.8-9.0). Deterioration of renal function was independently associated with age >70 years in all patients (RR 2.92) and performance of EVAR compared with OR (RR 3.5) during long-term follow-up.
Compared with EVAR, OR was associated with a significant but transient fall in GFR at 30 days. Renal function decline after AAA repair was common, regardless of method, especially in patients >70 years of age. However, the renal function decline was significantly greater by Kaplan-Meier analysis in EVAR than OR patients during long-term follow-up. More aggressive strategies to monitor and preserve renal function after AAA repair are warranted.

1 Bookmark
 · 
208 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The snorkel approach for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been found to be a safe and viable alternative to open repair for juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms with good short-term outcomes. Concerns about long-term durability and renal branch patency with this technique have been raised with the increasing availability of fenestrated devices. We sought to evaluate renal function changes in patients undergoing "snorkel" EVAR (sn-EVAR). Patients who underwent sn-EVAR from 2009 to 2012 were included in this analysis. Creatinine values were obtained throughout the patient's preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative course. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated by the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Acute renal dysfunction was analyzed according to the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End stage) criteria, whereas chronic renal dysfunction was stratified by the chronic kidney disease staging system. Forty-three consecutive patients underwent sn-EVAR (31 double renal, 12 single renal) for juxtarenal aortic aneurysms. Mean follow-up time was 21 months. Mean aneurysm size was 6.6 cm (range, 5.1-10.5 cm) with anatomy not suitable for treatment with standard EVAR (mean neck length, 1.6 mm); 74 renal snorkel stents were placed in these patients with a 2-year primary patency of 95%. On average, the cohort at baseline was stratified as having moderate renal dysfunction. Mean baseline, maximum postoperative, and latest follow-up creatinine concentrations were 1.20, 1.49, and 1.43, respectively (P = .004). Mean baseline, maximum postoperative, and latest follow-up GFRs were 57.4, 47.8, and 49.2, respectively (P = .014). With use of RIFLE criteria, 14 patients (32.6%) experienced some form of acute kidney injury, although 10 of these patients (23.3%) were classified as mild (25%-50% decline in GFR). On analysis without the RIFLE criteria, 21.4% of patients had postoperative creatinine concentration >1.5 mg/dL, 28.6% had postoperative creatinine concentration increase >30%, and 28.6% had postoperative GFR decline >30%. For the entire study cohort at latest follow-up, 51% experienced no decline of chronic renal dysfunction and 8.1% had improvement in renal function. Renal function declined by one stage in 35.2% of the cohort and by two stages in 5.4%. On analysis without chronic kidney disease staging, 24.3% of patients had latest follow-up creatinine concentration >1.5 mg/dL, 29.7% had latest follow-up creatinine concentration increase >30%, and 24.3% had latest follow-up GFR decline >30%. Mean survival time from significant renal decline was 23.4 months. sn-EVAR continues to demonstrate a high rate of technical success and results in only mild rates of acute and midterm renal function decline according to a number of established definitions for renal dysfunction. Continued monitoring of renal function, renal stent behavior, and abdominal aortic aneurysm sac changes remains critically important in the long-term management of patients undergoing sn-EVAR, particularly given the high comorbidities associated with juxtarenal aortic aneurysms.
    Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 04/2014; · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The impact of any intervention on renal function is a crucial determinant of outcome. Open (OR) and endovascular (EVAR) abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair can affect renal function during the short and longer term. This study aimed to directly compare the effect of those different types of aneurysm repair during a period of 2 years. This was a nested case-control study including patients undergoing either OR or EVAR of an infrarenal AAA. Three groups were included: OR, EVAR with suprarenal endograft fixation, and EVAR with infrarenal fixation. These were matched for age (within 2 years), sex, AAA size (within 1 cm), hypertension, smoking, and proximal neck diameter (within 5 mm). The primary end point was change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula at baseline, 6 months, 12 months, and 2 years. A total of 225 patients were included [(45 ORs matched vs 90 suprarenal and 90 infrarenal fixation EVARs; 35 women (16%); age, 71 ± 8 years; AAA size, 6.4 ± 1 cm]. Groups did not differ significantly in terms of diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, or baseline eGFR (P = .89). On average, those undergoing OR lost a mean 5.39 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (P = .48) within 1 year and 5.49 units (P = .42) after 2 years. The suprarenal fixation patients lost 5.58 units (P = .002) after 1 year and 6.57 units (P = .001) after 2 years. Finally, the infrarenal fixation patients lost 0.53 unit (P = .74) after 1 year and 2.24 units (P = .22) after 2 years. OR and suprarenal fixation EVAR are associated with significant declines in renal function during 2 years, in contrast to infrarenal EVAR fixation. The patterns of eGFR decline in OR and suprarenal fixation EVAR are not similar, suggesting different causal mechanisms.
    Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 04/2014; · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Deterioration in renal function has been described after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVRs). The etiology is multifactorial and represents an important therapeutic target. A need exists to quantitatively summarize incidence and severity of renal dysfunction after EVR to allow better-informed attempts to preserve renal function and improve life expectancy. Here a systematic search was performed using Medline and Embase for renal function after EVR applying PRISMA statements. Univariate and multivariate random-effects meta-analyses were performed to estimate pooled postoperative changes in serum creatinine and creatinine clearance at four time points after EVR. Clinically relevant deterioration in renal function was also estimated at 1 year or more after EVR. Pooled probability of clinically relevant deterioration in renal function at 1 year or more was 18% (95% confidence interval of 14-23%, I(2) of 82.5%). Serum creatinine increased after EVR by 0.05 mg/dl at 30 days/1 month, 0.09 mg/dl at 1 month to 1 year, and 0.11 mg/dl at 1 year or more (all significant). Creatinine clearance decreased after EVR by 5.65 ml/min at 1 month-1 year and by 6.58 ml/min at 1 year or more (both significant). Thus, renal dysfunction after EVR is common and merits attention.Kidney International advance online publication, 20 August 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.272.
    Kidney International 08/2014; · 8.52 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
181 Downloads
Available from
May 17, 2014