Cryptosporidium isolates identified in fourteen stool samples, collected from five HIV-infected patients and nine immunocompetent children, living in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were submitted to a molecular analysis using a nested PCR followed of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), for genetic characterization. The analysis was based on digestion with RsaI restriction enzyme of a DNA fragment amplified from the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene. Based on this analysis, four samples were identified as Cryptosporidium parvum, eight as Cryptosporidium hominis and two presented a profile that corresponded to Cryptosporidium meleagridis when compared to the standards used in the analysis. The use of molecular methods can be helpful to identify source of infections and risk factors related to Cryptosporidium infection in our communities.
"In the Middle East, C. parvum is the dominant species in humans (Sulaiman et al., 2005; Meamar et al., 2007; Tamer et al., 2007; Al-Brikan et al., 2008; Pirestani et al., 2008). In the rest of the world, especially developing countries, C. hominis is usually the predominant species in humans (Cordova Paz Soldan et al., 2006; Gatei et al., 2006b, 2007, 2008; Muthusamy et al., 2006; Park et al., 2006; Samie et al., 2006; Ajjampur et al., 2007; Bushen et al., 2007; Cama et al., 2007, 2008; Cheun et al., 2007; Hung et al., 2007; Morse et al., 2007; Araujo et al., 2008; Jex et al., 2008). Geographic variations in the distribution of C. parvum and C. hominis can also occur within a country. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular tools have been developed to detect and differentiate Cryptosporidium at the species/genotype and subtype levels. These tools have been increasingly used in characterizing the transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans and animals. Results of these molecular epidemiologic studies have led to better appreciation of the public health importance of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes in various animals and improved understanding of infection sources in humans. Geographic, seasonal and socioeconomic differences in the distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans have been identified, and have been attributed to differences in infection sources and transmission routes. The transmission of C. parvum in humans is mostly anthroponotic in developing countries, with zoonotic infections play an important role in developed countries. Species of Cryptosporidium and subtype families of C. hominis have been shown to induce different clinical manifestations and have different potential to cause outbreaks. The wide use of a new generation of genotyping and subtyping tools in well designed epidemiologic studies should lead to a more in-depth understanding of the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aspergillus is a phagocyte opportunistic fungus that causes aspergillosis, an unusual disease in patients with AIDS. Six cases of fungal ball in patients with AIDS are reported here. In this group, all patients had hemoptysis and tuberculosis as the underlying lung disease. The diagnosis of pulmonary fungus ball was based on the clinical and radiographic feature, combined with serological and mycological evidence of Aspergillus fumigatus.
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 12/2009; 51(6):345-8. DOI:10.1590/S0036-46652009000600007 · 1.01 Impact Factor
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