Changes in male suicides in Scottish prisons: 10-year study.
ABSTRACT In 1999 I estimated the expected number of UK prison suicides, taking into account that opioid users' deaths from suicide were 10 times the number expected for their age and gender. Changes have since taken place in Scottish prisons.
To estimate the expected number of male suicides in Scottish prisons in 1994-2003, having taken age and opioid dependency into account; and to consider the extremes of prisoner age.
The effective number that prisons safeguard in terms of suicide risk was approximated as 10 times the number of opioid-dependent inmates plus other inmates. By applying age-appropriate suicide rates for Scottish males to these effective numbers, expectations for male suicides in Scottish prisons were calculated.
In 1994-98, there were at least 57 male suicides, significantly exceeding the age- and opioid-adjusted expectation of 41. In 1999-2003, the 51 male suicides in prison were consistent with expectation (upper 95% limit: at least 54). During the decade 1994-2003, observed and expected suicides were mismatched at both extremes of age: 40 males aged 15-24 years died by suicide v. 24 expected, and 13 males aged 45+ v. 2 expected. Against 4.5 prison suicides expected for males aged 15-24 years during a 2-year period, actual suicides were 3 in 2002 + 2003 and 4 in 2004 + 2005.
Scotland has redressed an excess of male suicides, especially by its youngest prisoners.
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ABSTRACT: Background:There is a considerable lack of scientific estimate of psychiatric morbidity among Indian prisoners.Objective:The objective of the following study is to study the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among prisoners.Settings and Design:A cross-sectional study at District Jail, Kozhikode, Kerala.Materials and Methods:A total of 255 prisoners who were inmates during the period from mid-April to mid-July 2011 participated in the study. The study subjects included both male and female remand or convict prisoners. Socio-demographic data, clinical history and criminological history were collected from each individual. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed using MINI-Plus.Statistical Analysis:Done by using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA).Results:A total of 175 subjects (68.6%) had a current mental illness. Substance use disorder was the most common diagnosis (47.1%). Antisocial personality disorder was diagnosed in 19.2%, adjustment disorder in 13.7%, mood disorder in 4.3% and psychosis in another 6.3% of prisoners. A high rate of a current psychiatric disorder was seen in male (69.7%) prisoners. A significant association was noticed for the different nature of crimes with psychiatric diagnoses and previous imprisonment. Nearly 4% of prisoners reported a moderate to high suicide risk.Conclusion:Mental health problems among prisoners were quite high. Mentally ill prisoners are at high risk for repeated incarceration. The increased rate of psychiatric disorders should be a concern for mental health professionals and the policy makers.Indian Journal of Psychiatry 04/2014; 56(2):150-3. DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.130495
Article: On adhered spill plume entrainment[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The weak rectangular plume formulation of Kumar, Cox and Thomas  for unconstrained spill plumes is here modified for application to “adhered” plumes.This simple treatment provides a natural theoretical description of the transition from two to three dimensional flow in contrast to the recent correlations of Harrison and Spearpoint . Reasonable agreement with Harrison’s  data is demonstrated using the same entrainment coefficient as for the free plume .Fire Safety Journal 11/2010; 45(6):400-401. DOI:10.1016/j.firesaf.2010.08.001 · 1.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Suicide rates in correctional institutions have been increasing during the last decades. The reasons for this increase remain unclear, yet a lot of contradictory explanations were stated: the increase might be due to mass incarceration and overcrowding of small cells resulting in high psychosocial stress, changes in psychiatric health policy which might have transferred the care for patients from mental hospitals to custodial institutions, or legislation changes that might have led to a selection of offenders at higher risk (e.g. offenders who committed high violent offences or suffered from mental disorders without being referred to psychiatric hospitals). In Greece the situation is not described in details, at least during the last few years. By law, every death of prisoner is subject to medicolegal investigation. Our study consists of the meticulous research of the data records of major Greek correctional facilities, for the time period 1999-2010. An official permission was obtained from the Hellenic Ministry of Justice, which gave us access to these restricted records. Data was also collected from the Piraeus Forensic Service, from the Department of Pathological Anatomy of the University of Athens and finally from our own records. Measures were taken to respect the anonymity of the cases. Data was collected for the social, penal, medical history as well as for the medicolegal investigation. A total of 339 cases were collected, only 259 of which had available full data records, due to weaknesses in the prison records. From the 259 cases, 70 incidents of suicide were collected. Victims of suicide in major Greek correctional facilities, appear to fulfill the expected profile, as in the general population.Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 08/2013; 20(6):711-4. DOI:10.1016/j.jflm.2013.03.025 · 0.99 Impact Factor