Predicting outcomes of oral aspirin challengesin patients with asthma, nasal polyps, andchronic sinusitis
ABSTRACT A definitive diagnosis of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) requires a positive oral aspirin challenge (OAC), but predicting which patients will have positive challenges is often difficult.
To analyze information about historical aspirin- and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-associated respiratory reactions and clinical characteristics as potential markers to predict positive OACs.
A total of 243 patients underwent OACs. Data related to previous reactions and clinical characteristics of patients were correlated with the result of the OACs.
Without prior exposure to aspirin or NSAIDs, the chance of a positive OAC was 5 in 12 (42%) but was 198 in 231 (86%) for those with a history of aspirin- and NSAID-associated asthma attacks. Sex, atopy, number of sinus infections per year, and number of sinus surgical procedures were not associated with positive OACs. Patients with 2 or more prior aspirin- and NSAID-associated respiratory reactions had an 89% chance of having a positive OAC vs single reactors (80%; P = .04). Mild or moderate prior reactions were associated with 84% or 80% positive OACs, whereas 100% of the 45 patients with severe prior reactions had positive OACs (P = .007). Except for hospitalizations, treatment locations of prior reactions (home or emergency department) did not seem to make any difference. Logistic regression identified age, sense of smell, and multiple prior reactions as independent risk factors associated with positive OACs.
Age younger than 40 years, poor sense of smell, multiple prior respiratory reactions, and severe prior asthmatic reactions associated with aspirin and NSAIDs significantly increased the chances of a positive OAC.
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ABSTRACT: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are reported to be the second most common cause of drug hypersensitivity. In 2011, experts from the EAACI/ENDA group and GA(2)LEN proposed a new classification system for NSAID hypersensitivity. The aim of this study was to classify a patient cohort with a history of NSAID hypersensitivity according to this system. Patients with a clinical history of NSAID hypersensitivity referred to the Allergy Centre, Odense University Hospital between 2002 and 2011 and evaluated with oral provocation tests (OPTs) were included in the study. Medical records were retrospectively investigated with respect to the culprit NSAID(s), underlying diseases and symptoms at the primary reaction and during oral provocation tests (OPTs). Data was supplemented with a questionnaire. Classification according to EAACI guideline was based on these findings. In total 149 patients were included. Of those, 39 patients (26.2%) had a positive OPT. Twenty-nine patients were classified as cross-reactive responders and 9 patients as single NSAID responders after positive OPTs with the culprit NSAID, but not to acetylsalicylic acid. All single NSAID responders reacted to non-pyrazolone drugs. Only one patient could not be classified according to the EAACI/ENDA system. An overlap between respiratory and cutaneous symptoms was found in 15/39 (38%) of patients. All but one of our patients could be classified according to the EAACI classification system. Overlaps between different classes may occur much more commonly than expected.03/2015; 5:10. DOI:10.1186/s13601-015-0052-0
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ABSTRACT: Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is a clinical condition which results in adverse upper and lower respiratory symptoms, particularly rhinitis, conjunctivitis, bronchospasm, and/or laryngospasm, following exposure to cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibiting drugs, namely aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). A provocative aspirin challenge is the gold standard for diagnosis of AERD. Aspirin desensitization and continuous aspirin therapy has been highly efficacious in those patients with suboptimal control of their disease on current available pharmacotherapy or those with other underlying conditions (i.e., cardiovascular disease) who may require frequent treatment with aspirin or NSAIDs. This review article focuses on aspirin desensitization and the management of patients with AERD with a particular emphasis on outcomes in those patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis.Current Allergy and Asthma Reports 03/2015; 15(3):508. DOI:10.1007/s11882-014-0508-7 · 2.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), also known as Samter's triad, is a clinical syndrome which consists of aspirin (ASA) intolerance, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis, and intrinsic bronchial asthma (Press Med 119:48-51, 1922). ASA challenge is the gold standard for diagnosing AERD (Curr Allergy Asthma 9:155-163, 2009). The practice of ASA challenge and desensitization in Canada is infrequently utilized, which may explain its omission as a viable therapeutic option in the latest Canadian clinical practice guidelines for acute and chronic rhinosinusitis (AACI 7:1-38, 2011). This retrospective study assessed 111 patients who underwent ASA desensitization in the Allergy and Immunology clinic at St. Joseph's Healthcare (SJHC) in London, Ontario. The mean age was 50.7 years, and 52.5% (n = 58) were male. Sixty-one percent (n = 68) claimed prior, significant reactions to ASA, and all patients had features of AERD. Seventy-three percent (n = 81) claimed symptom improvement after achieving maintenance dosing on the desensitization protocol. Of this population, 21.6% (n = 24) improved in all 3 areas of interest (sense of taste or smell, upper respiratory symptoms and lower respiratory symptoms). Twenty-six percent (n = 29) had adverse effects, mostly in the way of gastrointestinal upset, but no severe adverse events were seen. ASA desensitization helps improve symptoms in patients with AERD. Further, it allows patients to tolerate additional ASA and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs) when needed for supplemental analgesia or for cardio-protection. This is of particular benefit in those who require these medications for improved quality of life, and for reduced morbidity and mortality, such as those with cardiovascular disease or chronic pain. There should be further studies conducted in Canada as well as consideration for ASA desensitization to be included in the next clinical practice guidelines.Allergy Asthma and Clinical Immunology 12/2014; 10(1):64. DOI:10.1186/s13223-014-0064-7