Neuroprotective effects of the novel glutamate transporter inhibitor (-)-3-hydroxy-4,5,6,6a-tetrahydro-3aH-pyrrolo[3,4-d]-isoxazole-4-carboxylic acid, which preferentially inhibits reverse transport (glutamate release) compared with glutamate reuptake.
ABSTRACT (+/-)-3-Hydroxy-4,5,6,6a-tetrahydro-3aH-pyrrolo [3,4 -d]-isoxazole-4-carboxylic acid (HIP-A) and (+/-)-3-hydroxy-4,5,6, 6a-tetrahydro-3aH-pyrrolo[3,4-d]isoxazole-6-carboxylic acid (HIP-B) are selective inhibitors of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs), as potent as DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA). We report here that the active isomers are (-)-HIP-A and (+)-HIP-B, being approximately 150- and 10-fold more potent than the corresponding enantiomers as inhibitors of [3H]aspartate uptake in rat brain synaptosomes and hEAAT1-3-expressing cells. Comparable IC(50) values were found on the three hEAAT subtypes. (-)-HIP-A maintained the remarkable property, previously reported with the racemates, of inhibiting synaptosomal glutamate-induced [3H]D-aspartate release (reverse transport) at concentrations significantly lower than those inhibiting [3H]L-glutamate uptake. New data suggest that the noncompetitive-like interaction described previously is probably the consequence of an insurmountable, long-lasting impairment of EAAT's function. Some minutes of preincubation are required to induce this impairment, the duration of preincubation having more effect on inhibition of glutamate-induced release than of glutamate uptake. In organotypic rat hippocampal slices and mixed mouse brain cortical cultures, TBOA, but not (-)-HIP-A, had toxic effects. Under ischemic conditions, a neuroprotective effect was found with 10 to 30 microM (-)-HIP-A, but not with 10 to 30 microM TBOA or 100 microM (-)-HIP-A. The effect of (-)-HIP-A suggests that, under ischemia, EAATs mediate both release (reverse transport) and uptake of glutamate. The neuroprotection with the lower (-)-HIP-A concentrations may indicate a selective inhibition of the reverse transport confirming the data obtained in synaptosomes. The selective interference with glutamate-induced glutamate release might offer a new strategy for neuroprotective action.
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ABSTRACT: The pathophysiology of idiopathic dystonias is still unknown, but it is regarded as a basal ganglia disorder. Previous experiments in the dt(sz) hamster, a model of primary paroxysmal dystonia, demonstrated reduced discharge rates and an abnormal pattern within the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN), a basal ganglia output structure. To clarify if this is based on abnormal gamma-aminobutyric acid(GABA)ergic or glutamatergic input, microinjections into the EPN were done in mutant hamsters in the present study. The GABA(A) receptor antagonists pentylenetetrazole and bicuculline exerted moderate antidystonic effects, while previous systemic administrations worsened dystonia in the dt(sz) mutant. GABA-potentiating drugs, i.e., the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol and the GABA transporter inhibitor 1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-[2-[[(diphenylmethylene)amino]oxy]ethyl]-3-pyridinecarboxy-lic acid (NNC-711), which are known to improve dystonia after systemic treatment in mutant hamsters, did not exert significant effects after EPN injections, but NNC-711 tended to increase the severity at the highest dose (2.5 ng bilateral). The NMDA receptor antagonist D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid (AP-5) retarded the onset of a dystonic attack. However, this effect was not dose dependent and the AMPA receptor antagonist 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzol(f)quinoxaline (NBQX) alone or in combination with AP-5 and NNC-711, also failed to show any effects on dystonia. The present data do not provide clear evidence for an enhanced striatal GABAergic input or a reduced glutamatergic activation of the EPN via the subthalamic nucleus, i.e., more pronounced antidystonic effects of GABA(A) receptor antagonists and stronger prodystonic effects of GABAmimetics and glutamate receptor antagonists were expected. Nevertheless, previously found changes in entopeduncular activity probably play a critical pathophysiological role in dystonic hamsters.Journal of Neural Transmission 06/2010; 117(6):747-57. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glutamate transporters play an important role in the regulation of extracellular glutamate concentrations in the mammalian brain and are, thus, promising targets for therapeutics. Despite this importance, the development of pharmacological tools has mainly focused on the synthesis of competitive inhibitors, which are amino acid analogues that bind to the substrate binding site. In this report, we describe the characterization of the mechanism of glutamate transporter inhibition by a constrained, cyclic glutamate analogue, (+)-3-hydroxy-4,5,6,6a-tetrahydro-3aH-pyrrolo[3,4-d]isoxazole-6-carboxylic acid [(+)-(3aS,6S,6aS)-HIP-B]. Our results show that (+)-HIP-B is a nontransportable amino acid that inhibits glutamate transporter function in a mixed mechanism. Although (+)-HIP-B inhibits the glutamate-associated anion conductance, it has no effect on the leak anion conductance, in contrast to competitive inhibitors. Furthermore, (+)-HIP-B is unable to alleviate the effect of the competitive inhibitor dl-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA), which binds to the substrate binding site. (+)-HIP-B is more potent in inhibiting forward transport compared to reverse transport. In a mutant transporter, which is activated by glutamine, but not glutamate, (+)-HIP-B still acts as an inhibitor, although this mutant transporter is insensitive to TBOA. Finally, we analyzed the effect of (+)-HIP-B on the pre-steady-state kinetics of the glutamate transporter. The results can be explained with a mixed mechanism at a site that may be distinct from the substrate binding site, with a preference for the inward-facing configuration of the transporter and slow inhibitor binding. (+)-HIP-B may represent a new paradigm of glutamate transporter inhibition that is based on targeting of a regulatory site.Biochemistry 06/2012; 51(27):5486-95. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bromocriptine, a dopamine D(2) receptor agonist, has widely been used for patients with Parkinson's disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of bromocriptine on glutamate transporter. Since the astroglial glutamate transporter GLT-1 (EAAT2) is the predominant isoform in the forebrain, we generated EAAT2-expressing human embryonic kidney cells and immortalized mouse astrocytes. In the present studies, we observed a GLT-1-immunoreactive band and significant Na(+)-dependent d-[(3)H] aspartate uptake. Furthermore, the glutamate transporter inhibitors, dl-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA) and dihydrokainate (DHK), displayed a dose-dependent reduction of d-[(3)H] aspartate uptake in both types of cells. In contrast, cells exposed to either chemical anoxia or high KCl elicited a marked release of d-[(3)H] aspartate, and the release was inhibited by TBOA and DHK, implying the contribution of glutamate transporter reversal. Interestingly, we found that bromocriptine dose-dependently inhibits d-[(3)H] aspartate release elicited by chemical anoxia or high KCl, while no changes occurred in the uptake. The inhibitory action of bromocriptine was not affected by sulpiride, a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist. On the other hand, bromocriptine had no effect on swelling-induced d-[(3)H] aspartate release, which is mediated by volume-regulated anion channels. In vivo studies revealed that bromocriptine suppresses the excessive elevation of glutamate levels in gerbils subjected to transient forebrain ischemia in a manner similar to DHK. Taken together, these results provide evidence that bromocriptine inhibits excitatory amino acid release via reversed operation of GLT-1 without altering forward transport.European journal of pharmacology 09/2010; 643(1):48-57. · 2.59 Impact Factor