Increased risks of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myelofibrosis among 24 577 first-degree relatives of 11 039 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms in Sweden
ABSTRACT Previous small studies have reported familial clustering of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and myelofibrosis (MF). We identified 6217 PV, 2838 ET, 1172 MF, and 812 MPN unclassifiable (NOS) patients diagnosed in Sweden, 43 550 controls, and first-degree relatives of cases (n = 24 577) and controls (n = 99 542). Using a marginal survival model, we calculated relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals as measures of familial aggregation. Relatives of MPN patients had significantly increased risks of PV (RR = 5.7; 3.5-9.1), ET (RR = 7.4; 3.7-14.8), and MPN NOS (RR = 7.5; 2.7-20.8). Analyses stratified by type of first-degree relative revealed consistently higher risks for siblings, compatible with a model of recessive genetic inheritance, which can be confirmed only by identifying the susceptibility gene(s). Mean age at MPN diagnosis was not different (P = .20) for affected relatives of cases (57.5 years) versus controls (60.6 years), and risk of MPN by age was not different for parents versus offspring of MPN cases (P = .10), providing no support for anticipation. Relatives of MPN patients had a borderline increased risk of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML; RR = 1.9; 0.9-3.8; P = .09). Our findings of 5- to 7-fold elevated risk of MPNs among first-degree relatives of MPN patients support the hypothesis that common, strong, shared susceptibility genes predispose to PV, ET, MF, and possibly CML.
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ABSTRACT: Erythrocytosis is frequently encountered as an incidental abnormality on laboratory testing that reveals persistent elevation of the hematocrit level (>52% in men and >48% in women). In many cases, erythrocytosis is the manifestation of an underlying cardiopulmonary process, drug-induced due to androgens, or secondary to smoking, rather than a primary bone marrow disorder such as polycythemia vera. A systematic approach to the clinical and laboratory evaluation of each patient is indicated to consider diverse differential diagnosis possibilities and to identify the underlying etiology of erythrocytosis in order to formulate appropriate subspecialist referral and management plans. A thorough medical history and meticulous physical examination supplemented by a focused initial laboratory evaluation will enable the general practitioner to ascertain the etiology of erythrocytosis in the majority of cases. Patients with clinical and laboratory features suggestive of polycythemia vera and those patients without an apparent underlying condition known to cause erythrocytosis benefit from early referral to a hematologist for further specialized diagnostic evaluation and therapy considerations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.European Journal of Internal Medicine 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ejim.2015.03.007 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The etiology of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) (polycythemia vera; essential thrombocythemia; primary myelofibrosis) is unknown, however they are associated with a somatic mutation-JAK2 V617F-suggesting a potential role for environmental mutagens. We conducted a population-based case-control study in three rural Pennsylvania counties of persons born 1921-1968 and residing in the area between 2000-2008. Twenty seven MPN cases and 292 controls were recruited through random digit dialing. Subjects were genotyped and odds ratios estimated for a select set of polymorphisms in environmentally sensitive genes that might implicate specific environmental mutagens if found to be associated with a disease. The presence of NAT2 slow acetylator genotype, and CYP1A2, GSTA1, and GSTM3 variants were associated with an average 3-5 fold increased risk. Exposures, such as to aromatic compounds, whose toxicity is modified by genotypes associated with outcome in our analysis may play a role in the environmental etiology of MPNs.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 03/2015; 12(3):2465-85. DOI:10.3390/ijerph120302465 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a group of haematological malignancies that can be characterised by a somatic mutation (JAK2V617F). This mutation causes the bone marrow to produce excessive blood cells and is found in polycythaemia vera (~95%), essential thrombocythaemia and primary myelofibrosis (both ~50%). It is considered as a major genetic factor contributing to the development of these MPNs. No genetic association study of MPN in the Hong Kong population has so far been reported. Here, we investigated the relationship between germline JAK2 polymorphisms and MPNs in Hong Kong Chinese to find causal variants that contribute to MPN development. We analysed 19 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the JAK2 locus in 172 MPN patients and 470 healthy controls. Three of these 19 SNPs defined the reported JAK2 46/1 haplotype: rs10974944, rs12343867 and rs12340895. Allele and haplotype frequencies were compared between patients and controls by logistic regression adjusted for sex and age. Permutation test was used to correct for multiple comparisons. With significant findings from the 19 SNPs, we then examined 76 additional SNPs across the 148.7-kb region of JAK2 via imputation with the SNP data from the 1000 Genomes Project.ResultsIn single-marker analysis, 15 SNPs showed association with JAK2V617F-positive MPNs (n¿=¿128), and 8 of these were novel MPN-associated SNPs not previously reported. Exhaustive variable-sized sliding-window haplotype analysis identified 184 haplotypes showing significant differences (P¿<¿0.05) in frequencies between patients and controls even after multiple-testing correction. However, single-marker alleles exhibited the strongest association with V617F-positive MPNs. In local Hong Kong Chinese, rs12342421 showed the strongest association signal: asymptotic P¿=¿3.76¿×¿10¿15, empirical P¿=¿2.00¿×¿10¿5 for 50,000 permutations, OR¿=¿3.55 for the minor allele C, and 95% CI, 2.59-4.87. Conditional logistic regression also signified an independent effect of rs12342421 in significant haplotype windows, and this independent effect remained unchanged even with the imputation of additional 76 SNPs. No significant association was found between V617F-negative MPNs and JAK2 SNPs.Conclusion With a large sample size, we reported the association between JAK2V617F-positive MPNs and 15 tag JAK2 SNPs and the association of rs12342421 being independent of the JAK2 46/1 haplotype in Hong Kong Chinese population.BMC Genetics 12/2014; 15(1):147. DOI:10.1186/s12863-014-0147-y · 2.36 Impact Factor